Hlamba Mlonga hill in the semi-arid south-eastern lowveld of Zimbabwe was occupied between the late tenth and the fifteenth centuries AD by successive communities using Gumanye, Zimbabwe period 3, Zimbabwe period 4 and Hlengwe ceramics. Stylistic evidence from the ceramic assemblages suggests that interaction occurred with K2 and later with Mapungubwe ceramic groups to the south-west during the late tenth and thirteenth century occupations. Evidence from glass beads, faunal remains and remains of metallurgical activities shows that these past communities exploited local resources including wildlife and rich iron deposits in order to build wealth through trade with surrounding regions.

In: Journal of African Archaeology