Two species of fossil angiosperm wood are described from the Oligocene of northwestern Bohemia in the Czech Republic. One specimen from Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill is identified as Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense Prakash et al. Because of its superior preservation, the specimen is designated as an epitype to the original holotype specimen of the species and genus. Cercidiphylloxylon kadanense is known only from the locality of Kadan–Zadní vrch Hill, and it represents the oldest fossil wood of true Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc. Three other wood specimens from Zichov are attributed to Liquidambaroxylon speciosum Felix. Modern wood of some species of Cercidiphyllum Sieb. & Zucc., Liquidambar L., Altingia Noronha, Corylopsis Sieb. & Zucc., Distylium Sieb. & Zucc., and Hamamelis L. was examined to determine how to distinguish the wood of Cercidiphyllum (Cercidiphyllaceae) from similar woods of Hamamelidaceae. The number of bars in the scalariform perforation plates of the vessels is about 40 in Cercidiphyllum, and about 20 in the Hamamelidaceae. Rays are variable, even at intra-specific level, and are not suitable for distinguishing these woods. These criteria were found to be useful in evaluating affinities of the fossil woods.