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The nonprofit sector and civil society are emerging in many nations all over the world, with NGOs of various kinds (associations, agencies, foundations, social enterprises, and volunteer programs) proliferating rapidly. Academic scholarship is emerging or expanding globally even faster than the underlying nonprofit sector itself. A new label for this interdisciplinary field is Voluntaristics, which refers to Nonprofit Sector and Voluntary Action Research, including studies of the kinds of groups noted above but also individual volunteering, both formal and informal.

The books of the Series focus on all aspects of Voluntaristics as an international and interdisciplinary field and as an emerging academic discipline. Included are chapters on topics such as the nonprofit sector, voluntary sector, third sector, civil society (sector), social economy, solidarity economy, social enterprise, social entrepreneurship, social investment, solidarity, philanthropy, giving, grants economy, foundations, volunteering (both formal and informal), civic engagement, community engagement, engagement, citizen participation, participation, nonprofit, not-for-profit, nonprofit organizations (NPOs), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), voluntary associations, associations, sodalities, self-help groups, mutual aid groups, support groups, interest groups, pressure groups, cooperatives, nonprofit agencies, civil liberties, democracy, democratization, social movements, social protest, and mobilization, among other topics. The Series includes English translations of scholarly works or collections of papers originally written in a language that is not English, aiming at bringing these important non-English materials available to English-speaking readers.

Another unique feature of the book series is that the umbrella/infrastructure organization, ICSERA, of which Series Co-Editor David Horton Smith is the founder and CEO/President, has sponsored the Book Series. Prof. Chao Guo of the University of Pennsylvania and Senior Vice-President of ICSERA is the Co-Editor of the Series. ICSERA (www.icsera.org) refers to the International Council of Voluntarism, Civil Society, and Social Economy Researcher Associations, a nonprofit research organization based in the USA.
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are major forces shaping our current age. ICT affects many areas of human existence and influences the both human wellbeing and human evil. The nonprofit sector is already heavily involved in technology both as a way to pursue its mission and as an influential factor in the evolution of the sector. This article examines how technology affects the sector and how the sector uses technology in its work.
The article begins with a discussion of how the emerging information society will change the nonprofit sector. The sector that we know is grounded on our experience in the agrarian and industrial periods in the United States and Europe. We then explore how technology evolved in the sector. This is followed by an examination of technology and nonprofit organizational behavior. Technology changes the organizations that make use of its capacities. Next is a discussion of the types of technology that nonprofit organizations use. The final three sections deal with technology and social change, technology in nonprofit settings, and issues and trends. This article provides the reader with a current appreciation of the scholarly and professional literature on ICT in the nonprofit sector.

Abstract

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are major forces shaping our current age. ICT affects many areas of human existence and influences the both human wellbeing and human evil. The nonprofit sector is already heavily involved in technology both as a way to pursue its mission and as an influential factor in the evolution of the sector. This article examines how technology affects the sector and how the sector uses technology in its work.

The article begins with a discussion of how the emerging information society will change the nonprofit sector. The sector that we know is grounded on our experience in the agrarian and industrial periods in the United States and Europe. We then explore how technology evolved in the sector. This is followed by an examination of technology and nonprofit organizational behavior. Technology changes the organizations that make use of its capacities. Next is a discussion of the types of technology that nonprofit organizations use. The final three sections deal with technology and social change, technology in nonprofit settings, and issues and trends. This article provides the reader with a current appreciation of the scholarly and professional literature on ICT in the nonprofit sector.

In: Voluntaristics Review

Abstract

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are major forces shaping our current age. ICT affects many areas of human existence and influences the both human wellbeing and human evil. The nonprofit sector is already heavily involved in technology both as a way to pursue its mission and as an influential factor in the evolution of the sector. This article examines how technology affects the sector and how the sector uses technology in its work.

The article begins with a discussion of how the emerging information society will change the nonprofit sector. The sector that we know is grounded on our experience in the agrarian and industrial periods in the United States and Europe. We then explore how technology evolved in the sector. This is followed by an examination of technology and nonprofit organizational behavior. Technology changes the organizations that make use of its capacities. Next is a discussion of the types of technology that nonprofit organizations use. The final three sections deal with technology and social change, technology in nonprofit settings, and issues and trends. This article provides the reader with a current appreciation of the scholarly and professional literature on ICT in the nonprofit sector.

In: Technology in Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action

Abstract

Wood anatomy is one of the most important methods for timber identification. However, training wood anatomy experts is time-consuming, while at the same time the number of senior wood anatomists with broad taxonomic expertise is declining. Therefore, we want to explore how a more automated, computer-assisted approach can support accurate wood identification based on microscopic wood anatomy. For our exploratory research, we used an available image dataset that has been applied in several computer vision studies, consisting of 112 — mainly neotropical — tree species representing 20 images of transverse sections for each species. Our study aims to review existing computer vision methods and compare the success of species identification based on (1) several image classifiers based on manually adjusted texture features, and (2) a state-of-the-art approach for image classification based on deep learning, more specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In support of previous studies, a considerable increase of the correct identification is accomplished using deep learning, leading to an accuracy rate up to 95.6%. This remarkably high success rate highlights the fundamental potential of wood anatomy in species identification and motivates us to expand the existing database to an extensive, worldwide reference database with transverse and tangential microscopic images from the most traded timber species and their look-a-likes. This global reference database could serve as a valuable future tool for stakeholders involved in combatting illegal logging and would boost the societal value of wood anatomy along with its collections and experts.

Open Access
In: IAWA Journal