Ground parenchyma cells play a crucial role in the growth and the mechanical properties of bamboo plants. Investigation of the morphology of ground parenchyma cells is essential for understanding the physiological functions and mechanical properties of these cells. This study aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of bamboo ground parenchyma cells and provide a qualitative and quantitative basis for the more effective utilization of bamboo. To do this, the morphology of ground parenchyma cells in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) was studied using light microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results show that various geometric shapes of ground parenchyma cells were observed, including nearly circular, square, long, oval, and irregular shapes. Cell walls of both long and short parenchyma cells exhibited primary wall thickening and secondary wall thickening, resulting in a primary pit field and simple pits. Most long cells were strip-shaped (L/W = 2.52), while most short cells were short and wide (L/W = 0.59). The proportion of long cells was 11 times greater than that of short cells. Most long cells were filled with starch grains, and some short cells also occasionally had starch grains. These findings allowed the first construction of the three-dimensional structure of parenchyma cells.
In January 2019, the People’s Armed Police set up a working group to draft the Coast Guard Law of the People’s Republic of China. The 13th National People’s Congress Standing Committee concluded its twenty-fifth session and scrutiny of this draft law, which officially entered force on 1 February 2021. The Law is divided into 11 chapters and 80 articles, including but not limited to maritime security, maritime crime investigation, use of non-firearm and weapons, and international cooperation. This article outlines and analyses the Law, as well as focusing on its implications as a matter of international law.