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Author: Chiara Zazzaro


For at least seven centuries Adulis has regulated the maritime trade of the people of the Northern Horn of Africa with the Mediterranean and India, first as main market for the people of the region and later on – at least from the late fourth and fifth centuries AD onwards – as a port also for transhipping goods from India to the Mediterranean. Its main role in the trade dynamics of the southern Red Sea and in the region has been assessed by recent and previous surveys and excavations, but the anchorage, landing facilities and port structures have not yet been found. Another aspect, relevant for outlining the maritime vocation of Adulis and its inhabitants, is its “fleet”, the existence of which is mentioned in the Martyrium Sancti Arethae and suggested by other sources but no traces of the ship remains, iconography or ship-related equipment has been found so far.

In: Human Interaction with the Environment in the Red Sea
In: Abgadiyat
This book contains a selection of papers presented at the Red Sea VII conference titled “The Red Sea and the Gulf: Two Maritime Alternative Routes in the Development of Global Economy, from Late Prehistory to Modern Times”. The Red Sea and the Gulf are similar geographically and environmentally, and complementary to each other, as well as being competitors in their economic and cultural interactions with the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. The chapters of the volume are grouped in three sections, corresponding to the various historical periods. Each chapter of the book offers the reader the opportunity to travel across the regions of the Red Sea and the Gulf, and from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean from prehistory to the contemporary era.

With contributions by Ahmed Hussein Abdelrahman, Serena Autiero, Mahmoud S. Bashir, Kathryn A. Bard, Alemsege, Beldados, Ioana A. Dumitru, Serena Esposito, Rodolfo Fattovich, Luigi Gallo, Michal Gawlikowski, Caterina Giostra, Sunil Gupta, Michael Harrower, Martin Hense, Linda Huli, Sarah Japp, Serena Massa, Ralph K. Pedersen, Jacke S. Phillips, Patrice Pomey, Joanna K. Rądkowska, Mike Schnelle, Lucy Semaan, Steven E. Sidebotham, Shadia Taha, Husna Taha Elatta, Joanna Then-Obłuska and Iwona Zych
In: Stories of Globalisation: The Red Sea and the Persian Gulf from Late Prehistory to Early Modernity
In: Stories of Globalisation: The Red Sea and the Persian Gulf from Late Prehistory to Early Modernity
In: Stories of Globalisation: The Red Sea and the Persian Gulf from Late Prehistory to Early Modernity

The Eritrean coastal site of Adulis has been known to archaeologists since the second half of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Italian archaeologist Roberto Paribeni conducted extensive excavations in different areas of the site which uncovered the remains of monumental buildings, churches and houses, as well as rich deposits of related material culture. Since then, archaeological investigations have been limited to the activities of Francis Anfray in 1961–62 and to a survey conducted by the University of Southampton in 2003–04. Our team’s first excavations in stratified deposits began in 2011, and soon revealed a complex chronological sequence of great importance for the understanding of the cultural history of the southern Red Sea region and the Horn of Africa. The project’s main efforts were directed towards the identification of the main phases of occupation at Adulis, the establishment of a typological sequence of pottery, and the analysis of architectural change.

In: Journal of African Archaeology