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  • Author or Editor: Chie Kojima x
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Abstract

International courts and tribunals increasingly refer to the importance of the duty to cooperate in the protection and preservation of the marine environment, as in the mox Plant case, Land Reclamation case, Advisory Opinion on iuu fishing, and South China Sea Arbitration. How a State can fulfill this duty to cooperate, however, remains unclear. This paper examines the nature and content of the duty to cooperate under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea namely the duty to negotiate or consult in good faith and the duty to cooperate through global, regional or subregional organizations.

In: Cooperation and Engagement in the Asia-Pacific Region
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
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This paper aims to explain how Japanese MPAs are established, managed, and implemented based on different laws. It introduces the definition of MPAs adopted within the governmental agencies and the relevant policy documents that describe the government's intention to expand MPAs in Japan. It then discusses the first and second largest types of MPAs in Japan, which represent centralized and community-based types of MPAs, respectively. It also touches upon the 2019 amendment to Japan’s Nature Conservation Act, which enables the government to designate MPAs in the offshore seabed area to protect its ecosystems.

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In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Law and Policy in Asia-Pacific
In: Regulation on Navigation of Foreign Vessels
In: Asia-Pacific and the Implementation of the Law of the Sea
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy
In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy