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This paper discusses the rhetorical functions of quotative frames in the dialogue between Tobiah and Edna (4Q197 4 iii 3–8, Tob 7:1–5) and of Hebrew loan words in the Aramaic Tobit fragments and suggests a new explanation for the puzzling קשיטא in 4Q197 4 iii 2 (Tob 7:1), which might be a mistranslation of a Hebrew original.

In: Dead Sea Discoveries

This article surveys all occurrences of the noun phrase kl ‘all’ with indeterminate plural nouns in Imperial and Western Middle Aramaic. Taking issue with the assumption that this is an archaic form of the similar determinate construction, the article exemplifies and contrasts their different nuances of meaning. It is suggested that the formal indetermination of the noun phrase marks it as non-specific. As against the construction of kl with indeterminate singular nouns it stresses plurality. The findings have implications for the origin of Imperial Aramaic and for the linguistic dating of Qumran Aramaic texts.

In: Aramaic Studies


One source of our knowledge of the Aramaic used in Hellenistic Egypt is the Septuagint, whose translators at times resorted to Aramaic when rendering their Hebrew Vorlage. The present article proposes one such 'Aramaising rendering', in which the Hebrew verb br' pi''el 'to cut down (wood)' was translated as if derived from the Aramaic homonymous root meaning 'to cleanse'. This root, attested in Nabataean, Samaritan, and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and mistakenly seen as an Arabism in these dialects, is recovered as Aramaic.

In: Aramaic Studies
In: Septuagint, Targum and Beyond