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In: Religion in Ephesos Reconsidered
In: Corinth in Context
In: Early Christian Voices

Abstract

Whip scorpions are an enigmatic group of terrestrial raptorial arachnids that show remarkable mating and courtship behavior in which the male forms a complex spermatophore. While whip spiders (Amblypygi) are relatively well-studied, whip scorpions (Uropygi) are poorly known. The two orders form the Pedipalpi, whip scorpions (Uropygi include Thelyphonida and Schizomida) and whip spiders (Amblypygi). Two major groups have been described based on the mode of sperm transfer that differ in the duration and mode of the typical female–male tandem mating dance. Because comprehensive studies are lacking, in this study we add to our knowledge of the reproductive biology of whip scorpions by analyzing the mating behavior and spermatophore morphology of the previously unstudied species Typopeltis dalyi Pocock, 1900. Our observations show that this species belongs to the second group and supports the hypothesis of P. Weygoldt that their mode of sperm transfer appears more effective than that of the first group and that sufficient sperm can be supplied with one mating. The mating behavior and spermatophore morphology in T. dalyi are similar to those of closely related species and add additional characters applicable for species classification and phylogenetic inferences.

In: Animal Biology

Scent marking is a well-established, but highly variable, mode of communication among strepsirrhine primates. We begin by reviewing this literature, focusing on nocturnal species. Our understanding about the information content of scent signals and the factors driving species diversity remains incomplete, owing to difficulties in acquiring comparative chemical data. We therefore re-examine such a data set, representing the richness and relative abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urine of 12 species (from Galagidae, Lorisidae, Daubentoniidae, Cheirogaleidae, Indriidae, and Lemuridae), to explore differences between nocturnal, diurnal and cathemeral species. As predicted by the variable importance of urine marking across species, the urine of nocturnal strepsirrhines contained the most VOCs and putative semiochemicals, differed significantly in composition from that of diurnal and cathemeral species and showed the strongest species scent “signatures.” Relevant to retracing the evolutionary trajectory of cathemeral strepsirrhines, nocturnal and diurnal species were most differentiated in their VOCs, with cathemeral species being intermediary, but more closely aligned with diurnal species. These data support cathemerality as an ancient expansion of diurnal animals into a nocturnal niche. Consideration of the traits and variables associated with olfactory communication offers a profitable new way for examining species diversity and patterns of evolutionary change.

In: Folia Primatologica
In: Adel verbindet [Adel verbindt]
Archaeology of Spaces, Structures, and Objects
Religion in Ephesos Reconsidered provides a detailed overview of the current state of research on the most important Ephesian projects offering evidence for religious activity during the Roman period. Ranging from huge temple complexes to hand-held figurines, this book surveys a broad scope of materials. Careful reading of texts and inscriptions is combined with cutting-edge archaeological and architectural analysis to illustrate how the ancient people of Ephesos worshipped both the traditional deities and the new gods that came into their purview. Overall, the volume questions traditional understandings of material culture in Ephesos, and demonstrates that the views of the city and its inhabitants on religion were more complex and diverse than has been previously assumed.