China’s rise as a “world factory” since the late 1970s has been attributed to the strategic coupling of local assets in the coastal regions, viz. Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in the global production networks (GPNs) driven by transnational corporations (TNCs). Since 2000, these export-led regions have encountered unprecedented challenges, particularly the rising cost of labour, which have engendered spatial relocation of labour-intensive manufacturing firms from coastal China to lowercost locations such as inland China and neighbouring Southeast Asian countries. A rich body of literature has examined the internal relocation of TNCs from coastal to inland China, relatively little has been conducted on cross-border industrial relocation out of China to Southeast Asian countries. Drawing upon the global production networks (GPNs) perspective, this study attempts to examine the relocation of TNCs from China’s coastal regions, e.g. the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to Southeast Asian countries, e.g. Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia. Particular attention is paid to the rise of Global South and its subsequent implications for the restructuring of global manufacturing in the increasingly globalizing economy.
The paper examines and compares the transnational labour migration from Cambodia to Malaysia and South Korea, based on the first-hand data and information collected through in-depth interviews with concerned migrant labour. The study sheds light on that the Cambodian workers have changed to engage in new types of unskilled jobs when they move to work in Malaysia and South Korea, which are different from their occupations in Cambodia. The study demonstrates that labour migration to Malaysia and South Korea has helped maximizing the incomes of concerned households through sending remittance as a prevalent mode of risk minimisation. This study sheds light on the different patterns between the migrants in Malaysia and South Korea in two aspects: 1) remittance to home: the vast majority of the migrant workers in South Korea sent their salaries back home by remittance, while those in Malaysia sent limited remittance back home; 2) different mechanisms: scheme of Government-Agency (G-A) for emigration to Malaysia and Government-Government (G-G) for that to South Korea. The study enriches the literature on transnational labour migration by the evidence of brain drain from Cambodia to South Korea and Malaysia.
Daphnia pulex is a freshwater microcrustacean that is known for its cyclical parthenogenesis. In D. pulex, parthenogenetic reproduction switches to sexual reproduction when the living conditions worsen. However, this transformation also occurs over age under favourable living conditions. Thus, there might be a relationship between aging and reproductive conversion. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing, generating 51 712 680 and 59 854 588 raw reads from 1 day-old D. pulex and 25 day-old D. pulex, respectively. From these reads, 60 776 transcripts were assembled and 36 569 (60.15%) unigenes were annotated. A number of significantly differentially expressed genes associated with growth, aging, and reproduction were identified and Quantitative real-time PCR for six genes confirmed the transcriptome data. RNA interference (RNAi) of the caspase-3 gene (casp3) that is a key gene for growth, development, aging, and reproduction, was conducted, which achieved an 80% reduction in casp3 mRNA expression. Meanwhile, the mRNA expression of upstream genes jnk and akt, and sir2 (encoding a substrate of casp3) were also detected. The change of jnk mRNA expression before and after RNAi was not significant () and the mRNA levels of sir2 decreased, while akt increased after casp3 RNAi (). The results indicated the interrelationships of some genes in the senescence pathway and helped to identify the molecular mechanism of the aging progress in D. pulex. Overall, the difference in mRNA expression profile during aging of D. pulex forms a basis for further studies aimed at understanding the role of the transcriptional level in regulating aging and reproductive transformation.