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  • Author or Editor: Craig Douglas Albert x
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One of the more interesting aspects of world concern during “Operation Iraqi Freedom” was how to incorporate Iraq’s Kurdish population into an American military strategy. Furthermore, as the war was winding down, and the United States and Iraq began to construct a new Iraqi state, government, and Constitutional regime, the focus shifted on what role would the Kurds play in the new government, or even if they should be included in a government. But for most policy-makers, it was unclear who were the Kurds. How were they different than the other ethnic and religious populations of Iraq and the region generally? What was their history with the Iraqi regime under Saddam Hussein? The purpose of this paper is to provide answers to these most important questions through the lens of Political Science. As Iraq continues to form its new identity, it is important to understand what constitutes the identity of one of its most prominent ethnic groups, the Kurds. In tracing and describing Kurdish ethnic attributes, it is also important to delineate the history between the Iraqi government under Saddam Hussein, how Iraqi identity was constructed in opposition to Kurdish identity (often oppressing it), and to understand the tense relationship between the two, a relationship that is most aptly described as having a history of violence.

In: Iran and the Caucasus

This explorative study uses descriptive process tracing to outline the evolution of Chechen terrorism from 1994-2017. Analysis begins with simple descriptive statistics that characterize data from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and identify those years in which significant changes occurred in the processes, environmental context, and overall security conditions in Chechnya. A detailed narrative is then given to contextualize the security scenario in Chechnya and to illustrate the transition from nationalist violence to religious-based terrorism.

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In: Iran and the Caucasus