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In 2010 Australia filed an application with the International Court of Justice alleging that Japan’s scientific whaling programme violated several provisions of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. It requested the Court to order Japan to halt the programme. On March 31, 2014, the International Court of Justice delivered the judgment in the Whaling in the Antarctic case involving Australia, Japan and New Zealand (Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan: New Zealand intervening). Instead of praising this landmark judgment, this paper seeks to summarize and analyze the legal issues of the case, and the conventional and institutional regulation of whaling, in order to provide profound analysis on the impact of the case on the international regulation of whaling.

Japan and other whaling States have continuously engaged in “scientific whaling” (especially when jarpa ii was preceded by the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic) after the 1985/1986 whaling moratorium issued by the iwc. This led to the whaling case brought by Australia against Japan before the International Court of Justice (hereinafter referred to as icj) in 2010, and the final judgment was delivered in 2014.

This article begins with an introduction about the factual and procedural background of the Whaling in the Antarctic case, including the previous 2008 Kyodo case (Humane Soc’y Int’l Inc. v. Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd) tackled by the Federal Court of Australia, and claims of both parties. The second part analyzes the regulation of whaling in the icrw/iwc regime, and whaling under the United Nation’s Convention on the Law of the Sea (hereinafter referred to as unclos). The third part focuses on the legal issues of the case, especially the connection between the identification of “maritime areas” (Antarctic area) and the determination of the icj’s jurisdiction in the case, the interpretation and application of Article vii of icrw, and the judgment of the icj. In the end, this paper examines the loopholes of whaling regulation within the icrw/iwc framework. More importantly, the inspiration and impact of the Whaling in the Antarctic case on the future of the iwc will also be analyzed.

In: International Marine Economy
In: International Marine Economy
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Abstract

The novel Coming through Slaughter (1976), a story of a talented musician’s pursuit of real art and the true self, is based on Buddy Bolden, a jazz cornet player from New Orleans, Louisiana, in early twentieth-century America. Author Michael Ondaatje shows his originality in creating a ‘jazz novel’ that transcends the boundary between music and literature, in which three jazz-like features – collage, improvisation, and intersubjectivity – are embodied in characterization, theme presentation, and narration. By virtue of the unique free elements of jazz, Ondaatje maximizes the postmodern features of the novel and vividly depicts the complex subjectivity of the characters.

Open Access
In: Signs and Media
Authors: and

In an era of climate change, economic globalization, and technological innovation, the Arctic region has been increasingly open to competing jurisdictional claims, commercial activities, and outside players. In the meantime, China’s engagement in the Arctic has drawn great attention. While some Arctic commentators are concerned about China as a threat to the region, many Chinese officials and scholars tend to portray China as a “rule-follower” in the Arctic. However, this “rule-follower” image fails to take full account of the evolving nature of Arctic governance and Arctic international law. This paper recasts China’s role in the Arctic. It argues that, to fulfill a “constructive participant” role in Arctic development, China can participate as a rule follower, a constructive challenger, and a keen learner concurrently, depending on the different issue-areas involved.

In: The Yearbook of Polar Law Online
Authors: and

This article mainly introduces the contemporary changes in Chinese family and especially analyses the transformation of family structure and type, family housing conditions, family relationship network, the relationship between husband and wife and parenthood. In addition, it discusses the influence of family changes in the socialization of children. Then it expounds the new transformation in children’s socialization because of family, school, mass media, etc. Finally, it discusses its challenge and reflection to family and pedagogue.

In: Frontiers of Education in China
In: Spatial Vision

It is vital to evaluate the effects of China’s farmland certification programme on farmers’ economic welfare and clarify the impact mechanism. This paper uses the China Labour Dynamics Survey (2014, 2016),1 building endogenous switching regression and endogenous switching probit models to test the impact of the farmland certification programme on farmers’ net agricultural income and poverty status after correcting for endogeneity. A robustness analysis is conducted applying instrumental variable and propensity score matching methods. The results indicate that the farmland certification programme can significantly increase farmer households’ economic welfare, including an 83.10% improvement in agricultural net income and a 3.17% reduction in poverty. Farmland certification also prompts farmers to allocate more resources to agriculture and reduces poverty by increasing farmers’ agricultural income. This study presents a constructive evaluation of the performance of China’s farmland certification policy, providing a strong theoretical and empirical foundation and a useful policy reference for consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation and effectively linking rural revitalisation.

Open Access
In: International Food and Agribusiness Management Review

While the effect of Operational Sex Ratio (OSR) on reproductive behaviour of males has been studied extensively, little is known of the response of females facing a female-biased OSR. We investigated the effect of different OSRs on female reproductive behaviour using the rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus, a freshwater fish that lays its eggs inside the gills of living freshwater mussels. Three levels of OSR (male/female ratio 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) were tested. We demonstrated that inspection of the mussel (spawning substrate) by individual females increased with increasingly female-biased OSR, but that the rate of following territorial male decreased. Aggression towards other females was not affected by the OSR. Interestingly, when a male bitterling led a non-dominant female towards the mussel, the dominant female would become aggressive to the male and chase the non-dominant female away. Aggression towards male followed a bell-shaped pattern and was highest at an OSR of 1:3. In both the female-biased OSRs examined, almost 50% of dominant females tended to chase away other females and defend the mussel, showing territoriality in a similar manner to males. These observations suggest that female reproductive behaviour is strongly affected by the OSR, and their reproductive tactics during courtship change from a passive role in courtship (following a male) to an active role in courtship (approaching a male), with presence of female territorial behaviour as the OSR becomes increasingly female-biased. This study provides strong evidence that a female-biased OSR has an important effect on female reproductive behaviour.

In: Behaviour

The mud crab, Scylla paramamosain Estampador, 1949, is a widely farmed commercial species in the South-East coastal areas of China. The crabs are captured and placed in a water-free container for further transportation. The long-time air exposure makes the crabs suffer from oxidative stress, triggering cell apoptosis and leading to the crab’s death. In this study, the homologue of the apoptosis regulator BAX was firstly identified in S. paramamosain and named as SpBAX. The coding region of SpBAX yielded a polypeptide of 278 amino acids, consisting of the defining motif of the BAXs family including Bcl-2 homologous BH1, BH2, BH3 regions and a transmembrane (TM) domain. Subcellular prediction suggested that SpBAX was located in the cytoplasm. The three-dimensional structure showed that SpBAX contained 8 helical regions. Two central α-helices (α5 and α6) flanked on one side by α3 and α4, and on the other side by α1, α2 and α7, which showed the same structure as BAXs in mammals. The highest expression level of SpBAX was detected in hepatopancreas tissue. The expression level of SpBAX was up-regulated in 12 h in hepatopancreas and in 24 h in haemocytes after air exposure. Meanwhile, a flow cytometry assay revealed that the proportion of apoptotic haemocytes exceeded 65% after air exposure for 36 h, showing a significant difference with the control group. These results indicated that the cloned SpBAX might be involved in the response to air exposure stress by causing cell apoptosis. This study may thus be helpful to clarify the mechanisms of the air-exposure stress response in the mud crab.

In: Crustaceana

Summary

The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is a destructive pathogen with a broad host range, causing serious damage to cucumber globally. Synthetic chemical nematicides are effective for controlling nematodes but they pose harmful effects on the environment and human beings. Thus, the development of natural plant defence mechanisms to contribute resistance to M. incognita is a potentially eco-friendly alternative. In recent decades, the biocontrol activity of P. chrysogenum against various pests and pathogens has been investigated in a variety of plants. The present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of induced resistance by P. chrysogenum strain Snef1216 against M. incognita through its use as seed coating. The expression of 80 genes in roots of cucumber, Cucumis sativus, at four different infection time intervals was examined. Genes belonging to defence, signal transduction, growth, binding and transportation, secondary metabolism, transcription factor, cell death, oxidoreductases and cell wall modification categories were selected and examined with specific primers via RT-qPCR. The greater expression of defence-related or other vital genes demonstrated that P. chrysogenum strain Snef1216 induced priming of defence and plant growth-promoting responses. These data could contribute to breeding new nematode-resistant and biomass-enhancing cultivars of cucumber. Overall, application of P. chrysogenum strain Snef1216 may be a potential alternative to chemical nematicides as part of a future more effective management strategy.

In: Nematology