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The satellite of the earth, which takes a little less than one solar-calendar month to complete its revolution. In the Qurʾān, the general Arabic term for moon (qamarqamariii, 414biv, 107a iv, 108b iv, 217a) occurs twenty-seven times, usually paired with the sun (q.v.; shams). Sūra 54 is entitled “The Moon” (Sūrat al-Qamar), in reference to the moon seeming to split in two at the time the Meccans began to persecute the Muslims (see mecca; opposition to muḥammad). The new or crescent moon (hilāl) appears only once (in its plural form, ahilla,q 2:189), and neither the term for the full moon (badrbadr iii, 414b ) nor that for the night when no moon is visible (i.e. sirārsirār iii, 414b ) is mentioned.

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

Study of the occult signification of numbers. Number symbolism is built into the Arabic alphabet since each letter in the Old Semitic abjad ordering had a numerical equivalent (see Table 1 below; see arabic script ). Muslims practiced gematria in divination (q.v.) and healing (see medicine and the qurʾān ) as well as in qurʾānic exegesis (see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ). In Islamic cosmology (q.v.) the alphabet numbers were linked to stars and planets (see planets and stars ), the four humors, names of God (see god and his attributes ), angels (see angel ), demons (see devil ) and a large variety of esoteric phenomena. The first nine numbers were aligned in a magic square, known as budūḥ or Geber's Square, which added up to 15 in all directions: 4 9 2 3 5 7 8 1 6 Originally from ancient China, Arab scholars attributed this square to Adam (see adam and eve ) and commonly wrote it on amulets (q.v.) as a protection against evil spirits and misfortune. Magic squares were also constructed for names, such as one that adds up to 66, the numerical sum of the letters in “Allāh.”

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online
In: Arabica
In: Culture Still Matters: Notes From the Field
In: Culture Still Matters: Notes From the Field
In: Culture Still Matters: Notes From the Field