The question of the universality and relativity of human rights and the relationships between human rights, humanitarian law and refugee protection are the subject of theoretical debates that concern international lawyers, academics, and international organizations. But, most importantly, it should be stressed that these debates are among people who are trying to understand ways of constructing strategies for dealing with the fundamental issue: helping people who are victims of abuse.
This volume, which has emerged from a colloquium organised by the Graduate Institute of International Studies and its Program for the Study of International Organization(s), attempts to project an integrated approach for helping those who are in need and to discuss ways of guaranteeing greater protection of certain universal values that underlie such help. It is the result of ideas shared between the major three organizations in this field, the UN Center for Human Rights, The International Committee of the Red Cross, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and outside experts on the relationship between the different protection regimes.
This work brings together the papers presented at a conference on `New Dimensions of Peacekeeping' which was convened at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva in March 1994. The papers address the new role of peacekeeping (including peacekeeping and peace enforcement) which is now emerging and also places an emphasis upon the role of the `newcomers' in peacekeeping, specifically Japan and Germany. The collection of papers, by many distinguished scholars in the field, actively discusses both the strengths and weaknesses of the United Nations peacekeeping efforts in meeting the increasing demands placed upon it due to the enormous upsurge in ethnic, religious and other local conflicts.
`The 1990s have seen wide swings in public opinion towards United Nations Peacekeeping. The euphoria and high expectations regarding what the United Nations can deliver have been replaced by the rude shocks and deflated assessments of its capacity to successfully cope with conflicts. In this context, it would be highly desirable that a judicious balance be struck in the evaluation of United Nations peacekeeping activities, which takes fully into account the great potential they have for contributing to international peace and security and to the reduction of human suffering. At the same time, such a review should include a candid discussion regarding the weaknesses and shortcomings of peacekeeping activities.
' (Excerpt from the Introduction by
Yasushi Akashi,Chiefof Mission of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) inthe former Yugoslavia)
This book is based on a meeting, held in Geneva from 27 February to 1 March 1995, which challenged the fundamental conceptions behind the original United Nations by launching an entirely new Charter, written by Maurice Bertrand, for a worldwide organization which could replace the UN, the Bretton Woods organizations and the specialised agencies.
The `Bertrand Proposal', the written commentaries which emphasize different aspects of the proposal, and a summary of the discussions are published in this book. The `Bertrand Proposal' is a major contribution to future research and analysis of international organization and organizations and to the attempts to resolve the present crisis of the international system. The book concludes that since the type of threats against peace, economic security and social development have changed, and the international community has not formulated an adequate response, it is up to a worldwide organization to try to organize the prevention of crises and conflicts.
Concern over the relationship between human rights, social justice and international trade competitiveness has led to the inclusion of the issue of the rights of workers in the agenda of leading international organizations. International labour issues once seen as a monopoly preoccupation of the ILO (International Labour Organization) have now become important issues in other international organizations, as well as within regional trading blocs. This original study examines the extent to which international labour issues have become issue of concern within the European Union, the ILO, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), and the WTO (World Trade Organization).
The internationally known authors of this book have been long-time observers of the work of international organizations on labour rights and globalisation and have been leaders in the effort to bring issue of social justice onto the international agenda.
Social Issues, Globalisation and International Institutions: Labour Rights and the EU, ILO, OECD and WTO is the culmination of a project of the Program for the Study of International Organization(s) (PSIO) at the Graduate Institute of Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland (HEI), supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation.
With contributions by
Philip Alston, Steve Charnovitz, Andrew Clapham, Robert Howse, Brian A. Langille and