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Abstract

Starting from the fourth century, Chinese clergy have composed regulations specifically suited to indigenous monastic life and intended to supplement Vinaya prātimokṣa rules and Bodhisattva precepts. Thanks to their relative flexibility, Chinese monastic codes represent a fundamental resource for understanding the evolution of Chinese Buddhism, as they conveniently reflect modifications in monasteries’ internal functioning and relationship with the outside world. Based on both textual evidence and fieldwork, this chapter provides an overview of Buddhist monastic regulations (guiyue 規約 or zhidu 制度) that are presently in use in public monasteries in the People’s Republic of China and considers them against the backdrop of a long Buddhist regulatory tradition. I first consider the place of monastic regulations within the Chinese Vinaya tradition and introduce the conventional contexts in which they were and are composed and learned. I then highlight major new typologies, new features, and new contents of Buddhist monastic regulations that have been composed since the post-Mao religious reconstruction as compared to late imperial Rules of Purity and Republican codes. Finally, rules related to the selection of abbots in public monasteries provides an example of the ways in which monastic regulations can be circumvented in order to allow for important institutional changes. This analysis especially shows how a plurality of old and new actors interact and elaborate a range of strategies in order to meet both new socio-political demands and internal needs—a process that actively participates in a redefinition of Buddhism that serves to promote its continual institutionalization and embedment in society. It will also appear that, while representing the device by which Chinese Vinaya quickly responds to social, political, and economic changes, monastic codes also remain strongly anchored in the received tradition. A full translation of the Communal rules (gongzhu guiyue 共住規約) of Bailin Chansi, a large Chan public monastery in Hebei province, is provided in the appendix.

In: "Take the Vinaya as Your Master"
Monastic Discipline and Practices in Modern Chinese Buddhism
This volume explores the role played by monastic discipline in the emergence and evolution of modern Chinese Buddhism.
A central feature of the Buddhist tradition, monastic discipline has received growing attention in the contemporary Buddhist world, but little from scholars. Adopting a diachronic perspective and a multidisciplinary approach, contributions by leading scholars investigate relevant Vinaya-related practices in twentieth and twenty-first centuries China and Taiwan, including issues of monastic identity and authenticity, updated ordination procedures, recent variations of Mahāyāna precepts and rules, and original perspectives on body movement and related sport activities.
The restoration and renewal of Vinaya practices and standards within Chinese Buddhist practices shed new light on the response of Buddhist leaders and communities to the challenges of modernity.
Contributors are: Ester Bianchi, Raoul Birnbaum, Daniela Campo, Tzu-Lung Chiu, Ann Heirman, Zhe Ji, Yu-chen Li, Pei-ying Lin, and Jiang Wu.
In: "Take the Vinaya as Your Master"

Abstract

Plum is a temperate fruit tree and thus shows abundant vegetative bud percentage and flowering following extended periods of low winter temperatures. When adequate periods of low temperatures do not occur, it is necessary to apply products to stimulate bud dormancy break and uniform leaf and flower appearance. This application is more frequently needed when plum trees are grown in the tropics. The objective of this study was to evaluate alternative products for breaking dormancy in ‘Reubennel’ plum in subtropical regions. The experiment was conducted at a site located at 22°22’S, 43°77’W and 1,173 m altitude, with a Cwa climate type. The following treatments were applied to eight-year-old ‘Reubennel’ plum trees in the 2018 and 2019 production cycles: 1) a negative standard composed of only water (control), a positive standard composed of 2) 1.5% hydrogen cyanamide (HC) (Dormex® commercial product) plus 4.5% mineral oil, 3) Erger G® organomineral fertilizer supplemented with 3% calcium nitrate, 4) 5% potassium nitrate and 5) 0.3% copper sulfate. Two liters of the treatment solutions were applied per plant with a sprayer. The effect of the tested products on vegetative bud percentage and flowering capacity, production cycle reduction and production and quality of ‘Reubennel’ plums was evaluated. It was concluded that the chemicals used to break dormancy affected only the phenology of plum trees in this subtropical region and that the application of copper sulfate can be used to break dormancy in these trees.

In: Israel Journal of Plant Sciences