Over 80 samples of fossil woods were collected from numerous outcrops of the Río Turbio Formation, southwestern Patagonia. Preservation of the woods is variable and only about half of these samples could be identified to genus level. The assemblage consists of six types of conifers and four types of dicotyledons, one of them a new species of Caldcluvioxylon (Cunoniaceae). We provide an emended diagnosis of Caldcluvioxylon. A previously described fossil wood from this stratigraphic unit, thought to have affinity with Proteaceae, was re-examined and is described herein as Scalarixylon romeroi sp.nov. Other families recognized in the Río Turbio Formation wood assemblage are Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Nothofagaceae. Differences in the taxonomic composition of the upper and lower members of the Río Turbio Formation are consistent with the age difference between them according to recent isotopic dating. The diversity of fossil wood is also consistent with the fossil leaves and pollen from each stratigraphic level and most of the taxa are shared with coeval Antarctic fossil wood floras.
A new species of Podocarpoxylon Gothan is described based on samples collected from sediments of the Río Turbio Formation. The fossil-bearing strata are lower Eocene (47–46 Mya) according to recent geochronological ages. The new species has indistinct growth ring boundaries, abundant and frequently tangentially zonate axial parenchyma, uniseriate pitting on radial walls, one half-bordered pit (= oculipore) with reduced borders and vertical aperture inclination per cross-field and medium height uniseriate rays. The new material is compared with all fossil-species of Podocarpoxylon and an inventory of all Podocarpoxylon species previously described is provided. Cross-field characters of the new species indicate affinity to the Podocarpaceae. The presence of Podocarpaceae wood augments other evidence of this family from the same stratigraphic unit.