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Abstract

This chapter begins by presenting Marian Małowist, a doyen of Polish historiography who in the 1930s initiated research on the Black Sea slave trade and in the 1960s launched a historiographic school whose members, mostly his students, undertook research on the Atlantic slave trade and contacts between Europeans and Africans. Małowist’s personal experience, as an Eastern European and Holocaust survivor, informed his field of interest as well as some of his judgements, although the latter changed dramatically over time. The chapter continues by comparing such aspects of the Black Sea and the Atlantic slave trade as their chronology, size and dynamics, types of slavery, impact on local societies, economies and environments, impact on the “receiving” societies and their economies, the problem of stigmatization and the position of former slaves in their adoptive societies, and, finally, the long-term effects and ways of memorizing in present-day discourse.

In: Slavery in the Black Sea Region, c.900–1900
International Diplomacy on the European Periphery (15th-18th Century), A Study of Peace Treaties Followed by an Annotated Edition of Relevant Documents
This is an extensive study, supplemented by an edition of relevant sources, of the diplomatic contacts between Poland-Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate between the early 15th and the late 18th century. It contains a chronology of mutual relations, a formal analysis of various types of documents, and a glimpse into the working of the Crimean chancery, where Genghisid and Islamic forms mixed with those borrowed from Christian Europe.
The book provides a fascinating insight into the intercultural exchange between Catholic Poland (with Latin and then Polish as the main chancery language) and predominantly Orthodox Lithuania (with Ruthenian as the main chancery language) on the one hand, and the Muslim Crimean Khanate (with Khwarezmian Turkic and then Ottoman Turkish as the main chancery language) on the other. It depicts Eastern Europe as a zone of contact, where the relations between Slavs and Tatars were by no means always hostile.
In: The European Tributary States of the Ottoman Empire in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

Abstract

The chapter raises the question why the Treaty of Carlowitz has been largely relegated to oblivion from the European memory. One reason is that almost nobody in present-day Europe is interested in its celebration. Even its real winners, the Austrians, can hardly celebrate today their past conquest of Hungary and triumph over ‘the Turk’ that was linked with harsh persecutions of Protestants, Jews and Muslims. Moreover, in most cases the treaty had proved short-lived: the Ottoman peace with Russia was broken as early as 1710, that with Venice in 1714 and that with Vienna in 1716. The case of Poland was quite different. Although at the beginning it was regarded as a failure since Poland did not acquire any new lands but only regained those lost to the Ottomans in 1672, precisely for that reason the peace proved highly stable and remained in force until Poland’s partitions in 1795. The author draws a somewhat paradox conclusion that the treaty remained stable precisely because both sides had been disappointed over its conclusion – a real proof that the peace was the result of a hard bargain and genuine compromise.

In: The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)
This volume deals with the history of the Ottoman-Polish political and diplomatic relations, and with the role and function of international treaties in early modern Europe, especially in the contacts between the Christian and Muslim states.
The extensive introduction consists of two parts: Part I examines diplomatic problems concerning "capitulations" (‘ahdnames), demarcation protocols (hududnames) and other Ottoman and Polish documents related to peace. Part II provides a chronological survey of the Polish-Ottoman relations covering the years 1414-1795, and then follow the texts of 69 documents composed in Turkish (rendered in a Latin transcription), Polish, Latin, Italian, and French. Turkish and Polish texts are provided with English translations. 32 documents preserved in originals are published in full facsimiles as well. The publication is enriched with bibliography, directory of geographical and ethnic terms, index and 3 maps.

Abstract

The chapter raises the question why the Treaty of Carlowitz has been largely relegated to oblivion from the European memory. One reason is that almost nobody in present-day Europe is interested in its celebration. Even its real winners, the Austrians, can hardly celebrate today their past conquest of Hungary and triumph over ‘the Turk’ that was linked with harsh persecutions of Protestants, Jews and Muslims. Moreover, in most cases the treaty had proved short-lived: the Ottoman peace with Russia was broken as early as 1710, that with Venice in 1714 and that with Vienna in 1716. The case of Poland was quite different. Although at the beginning it was regarded as a failure since Poland did not acquire any new lands but only regained those lost to the Ottomans in 1672, precisely for that reason the peace proved highly stable and remained in force until Poland’s partitions in 1795. The author draws a somewhat paradox conclusion that the treaty remained stable precisely because both sides had been disappointed over its conclusion – a real proof that the peace was the result of a hard bargain and genuine compromise.

In: The Treaties of Carlowitz (1699)