Combining historical geography with historical demography, and conceived as a study in environmental history, this book examines the long-term relationship between population, economy and environment in the northern half of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Using a rich variety of Dutch historical sources, including VOC and missionary archives, it attempts to reconstruct and analyse patterns of demographic, economic and landscape change throughout this large and ecologically diverse region over a period of almost three and a half centuries. Particular attention is given to the articulation between demographic and economic growth, to levels and determinants of reproductive fertility, to changing disease environments, and to the question of agricultural sustainability and its preconditions. The results call into question some common views regarding the reasons for low population growth, and the relationship between population density and landscape change, in the Southeast Asian past.
This book describes and analyses Minahasan regional nationalism in the period up to 1942. Attention is given to precolonial antecedents, to the transformations brought about by compulsory coffee cultivation, Christian mission activity and Western education, to the role of local representative councils, to the privileged position which Minahasans came to occupy relative to other Indonesians within the colonial state, and to the ambiguous relationship between Minahasa and the Indonesian nationalist movement.
Ideas and models drawn from the theoretical literature on nationalism are used throughout the study to illuminate the processes described. The concluding chapter also includes brief comparisons with other Indonesian regions and with the Philippines, together with an epilogue summarizing the developments of the Japanese occupation and the revolutionary period.
Credit and debt are practical concerns of all times and places. They are also increasingly important topics in economic history and the social sciences, from Marcel Mauss and the anthropology of the gift to the urgent quest for understanding of today's global credit crunch. This volume brings together eight essays on credit and debt in the history of Indonesia, where for centuries debt and debt bondage played central roles in the organization of society, and where efforts to combat 'usury' and free peasants from indebtedness were central to the ethical and nationalist movements of the late colonial period. Topics range from the inscriptions of ninth-century Java to the first global financial crisis in 1930, and from Islamic laws against the charging of interest to the role of Chinese temples and Dutch church charities as credit providers. The history of credit and debt in Indonesia is examined from a wide variety of perspectives—legal, institutional, and cultural as well as economic. Attention is paid to parallels and contrasts with more recent developments, including the Asian financial crisis of 1997 and Indonesia's rise to fame as a pioneer of the current global microfinance revolution.
Co-published by KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies and the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS).
Historians of Southeast Asia have traditionally preferred to write about politics and culture rather than economics and ecology, and where they have looked at the history of agriculture they have most often concentrated on cash crops like sugar, coffee and rubber which figure prominently in colonial records.
Smallholders and stockbreeders, by contrast, provides a rare survey of the history of foodcrop farming, and a unique look at the history of animal husbandry, in the Southeast Asian region.
Thirteen contributions by an international selection of expert authors cover topics ranging from the agricultural economy of precolonial Java to the growth of rice production in the Mekong Delta since 1950, and from the breeding of horses on the northern borderlands of mainland Southeast Asia to the production and consumption of beef in the Philippines. New light is shed on old questions regarding the directions in which Southeast Asian agriculture has evolved over the centuries, and new questions raised regarding the cultural, demographic, economic and political determinants of farming practices. While the geographical and chronological scales of analysis vary, most chapters deal with relatively large areas and with developments over periods of 100 years or more. Besides production for subsistence, commercial aspects of livestock and foodcrop farming are also given due attention and prove to have been important in many parts of the region from very early periods.
Smallholders and stockbreeders is essential reading for anyone interested in the agricultural history of Southeast Asia, whether for its own sake, or in connection with other aspects of regional history, or for purposes of comparison with other parts of the world.
This book examines the history of human interaction with forest and marine ecosystems in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. Rainforests falling to snarling chainsaws, and factory trawlers emptying the life out of tropical seas, are nowadays among the most familiar images of Southeast Asia. Yet the present excessive levels of logging and fishing have emerged only within the last generation. Until a few decades ago it was common for marine and forest-related economic activities in Southeast Asia to have limited, and in the long run rather stable, effects on the environment. Did this relative stability simply reflect lower population densities, less well developed markets, and less efficient extraction technologies? Or was it the result of successful resource management techniques and institutions? If so, why have these since failed or been abandoned? Seventeen contributions by an international selection of expert authors cover topics ranging from the collection of rattan, beeswax and forest resins in the seventeenth century to the management of modern marine nature reserves.
Muddied waters is essential reading for anyone interested in the environmental history of Southeast Asia, whether in connection with other aspects of this particular region, or in relation to patterns of environmental change and resource management in other parts of the world.
Too much of what has so far passed for the 'historical background' to Indonesia's environmental problems has consisted of little more than thinly disguised backward projections of modern trends. The writers in this volume report on their own pioneer journeys into the paper landscapes of the colonial literature and archives in search of the real environmental history of Indonesia.
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