Nottingham Studies on Human Rights series is edited within the University of Nottingham Human Rights Law Centre. It is a series of monographs and edited volumes offering scholarly analysis and discussion of the theory and practice of international and national human rights law. The volumes in the series cover all categories of human rights and the machinery for their implementation. It extends to the human rights standards developed within the United Nations and within regional human rights organisations. There is a strong focus on how these standards are applied and implemented in practice. Particular attention is given to issues of current concern and debate. Most volumes are monographs, but the series also includes edited collections of scholarly articles and documents.
The series published three volumes over the last 5 years.
On 2 June 2015, the un General Assembly voted to begin a process which may lead to the negotiation of a new international legally binding instrument—perhaps a third Implementation Agreement to the 1982 un Convention on the Law of the Sea—regulating the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Key elements of the agenda for the negotiations will be the agreement of modalities for the establishment of marine protected areas beyond national jurisdiction, as well as their relationship with existing sectoral protection measures. imo has the authority to designate sea areas for protection through two main mechanisms: Special Areas designated under marpol 73/78, and under its Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (pssa) Guidelines. It is the imo Marine Environment Protection Committee (mepc) that can designate pssas together with Associated Protection Measures (apm). To date mepc has designated 16 pssas; none of them are in the high seas. A number of high seas areas have been suggested as appropriate for pssa designation, including the polar areas and the Sargasso Sea in the subtropical north Atlantic Gyre. This paper suggests that the imo may want to consider proactively adjusting its approach to high seas protection in the light of the emerging wider United Nations agenda for conservation of areas beyond national jurisdiction.
The Mediterranean gecko Tarentola mauritanica is one of the most abundant reptile species in the western Mediterranean Basin. We use mitochondrial DNA sequences, 12sRNA and 16sRNA, to analyse the patterns of distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. The results show three well defined lineages. The first one, already known to be widespread throughout Europe, is distributed along the eastern coast and southern areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The second one, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, is widely found in central regions; and the third lineage, found so far only in two southern localities is unrelated to the other Iberian lineages, but rather to a Northern Moroccan clade. The genetic variability found within the Iberian haplogroup and the existence of a single haplotype within the European lineage suggests a complex pattern of rapid radiations and anthropogenic introductions. The third clade seems to be the result of a natural colonization from North Africa. All the data indicate that T. mauritanica is a species complex. The Iberian Peninsula, due to its geological complex history, appears to be both a hotspot and a melting pot of biodiversity, with several studies of diverse herpetofauna indicating that cryptic species occur there. More studies of additional species will be needed to develop a comparative phylogeographic framework for the region.
Phylogenetic relationships of the three morphological forms within the gecko genus Saurodactylus were estimated using mtDNA (12S rRNA and ND4) sequences. High between morphological forms variation (up to 25% with ND4), confirms that all three deserve specific status. Saurodactylus mauritanicus and Saurodactylus brosseti are strongly supported as sister taxa. Our results again highlight the extremely high mtDNA variability almost universally reported from within gecko species. The position of Saurodactylus within the Gekkonoidea was also investigated. Although considered as a member of the sphaerodactyl geckos, its taxonomic position is still highly uncertain. Evaluation of C-mos nuclear DNA sequences supports many of the recent taxonomic rearrangements within the Gekkonoidea. Using this marker, Saurodactylus is paraphyletic, with S. mauritanicus and S. brosseti sister taxa to Teratoscincus przewalskii rather than Saurodactylus fasciatus. This is supported by a further nuclear marker, RAG1, although for this gene region sampling is more limited. Based on this paraphyly, supported by two independent nuclear markers, we suggest it likely that Saurodactylus will need to be partitioned into two genera, pending further investigations.