Combining historical geography with historical demography, and conceived as a study in environmental history, this book examines the long-term relationship between population, economy and environment in the northern half of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Using a rich variety of Dutch historical sources, including VOC and missionary archives, it attempts to reconstruct and analyse patterns of demographic, economic and landscape change throughout this large and ecologically diverse region over a period of almost three and a half centuries. Particular attention is given to the articulation between demographic and economic growth, to levels and determinants of reproductive fertility, to changing disease environments, and to the question of agricultural sustainability and its preconditions. The results call into question some common views regarding the reasons for low population growth, and the relationship between population density and landscape change, in the Southeast Asian past.
This book describes and analyses Minahasan regional nationalism in the period up to 1942. Attention is given to precolonial antecedents, to the transformations brought about by compulsory coffee cultivation, Christian mission activity and Western education, to the role of local representative councils, to the privileged position which Minahasans came to occupy relative to other Indonesians within the colonial state, and to the ambiguous relationship between Minahasa and the Indonesian nationalist movement.
Ideas and models drawn from the theoretical literature on nationalism are used throughout the study to illuminate the processes described. The concluding chapter also includes brief comparisons with other Indonesian regions and with the Philippines, together with an epilogue summarizing the developments of the Japanese occupation and the revolutionary period.