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In: Reflection and Refraction
In: Congress Volume Ljubljana 2007

Abstract

This chapter aims to identify and categorise terms for violence in Hebrew, as a foundation for further study of the use of violence in the Hebrew Bible. It understands violence as the deliberate use of physical force against another, and especially against the body of another. It surveys terms for actions and puts them in several categories, such as to 1) destroy, oppress, show violence; 2) kill, slaughter; 3) strike; 4) break, break bones, break the neck; 5) crush; 6) pierce, thrust through, wound; 7) cut, cut off, cut into pieces; and 8) seize, bind. This categorisation does not include the words war, warrior, fight, burn, capture, or circumcise, nor does it include other terms for hostility that do not necessarily include violence, such as reject, despise, mock, curse, hate, abhor, and loathe. The preliminary list of terms for violence contains 235 items, which occur in the Hebrew Bible a total of 5,400 times (constituting 1.8% of the Hebrew Bible). The chapter analyses how many of these terms and occurrences relate to violence against persons and draws some preliminary conclusions based on this analysis.

In: Violence in the Hebrew Bible

Abstract

This chapter aims to identify and categorise terms for violence in Hebrew, as a foundation for further study of the use of violence in the Hebrew Bible. It understands violence as the deliberate use of physical force against another, and especially against the body of another. It surveys terms for actions and puts them in several categories, such as to 1) destroy, oppress, show violence; 2) kill, slaughter; 3) strike; 4) break, break bones, break the neck; 5) crush; 6) pierce, thrust through, wound; 7) cut, cut off, cut into pieces; and 8) seize, bind. This categorisation does not include the words war, warrior, fight, burn, capture, or circumcise, nor does it include other terms for hostility that do not necessarily include violence, such as reject, despise, mock, curse, hate, abhor, and loathe. The preliminary list of terms for violence contains 235 items, which occur in the Hebrew Bible a total of 5,400 times (constituting 1.8% of the Hebrew Bible). The chapter analyses how many of these terms and occurrences relate to violence against persons and draws some preliminary conclusions based on this analysis.

In: Violence in the Hebrew Bible
In: Vetus Testamentum
In: Vetus Testamentum

Abstract

In this chapter, the author had noted that 4QSama contains 9 readings not attested in Psalm 18 or ancient versions of 2 Samuel; but now he is able to present all the 18 variants of 4QSama as against the Masoretic Text (MT). The chapter contains a table showing some 18 items, some with more than one variant word, and so a total of 24 words. By author's count, there are some 66 words extant in the 4QSama text of 2 Samuel. In the table, above 24 words that are variants; in only 3 cases is the variant trivial 24 variants in a text of 66 words is on average one variant every 2.75 words. Viewed from a perspective of some distance from text-critical enquiries, the text of the Hebrew Bible is reasonably sound.

In: Studies on the Text and Versions of the Hebrew Bible in Honour of Robert Gordon
In: Let Us Go Up to Zion
In: Vetus Testamentum
In: Job 28. Cognition in Context