This volume explores the religious transformation of each nation in modern Asia. When the Asian people, who were not only diverse in culture and history, but also active in performing local traditions and religions, experienced a socio-political change under the wave of Western colonialism, the religious climate was also altered from a transnational perspective. Part One explores the nationals of China (Taiwan), Hong Kong, Korea, and Japan, focusing on the manifestations of Japanese religion, Chinese foreign policy, the British educational system in Hong Kong in relation to Tibetan Buddhism, the Korean women of Catholicism, and the Scottish impact in late nineteenth century Korea. Part Two approaches South Asia through the topics of astrology, the works of a Gujarātī saint, and Himalayan Buddhism. The third part is focused on the conflicts between ‘indigenous religions and colonialism,’ ‘Buddhism and Christianity,’ ‘Islam and imperialism,’ and ‘Hinduism and Christianity’ in Southeast Asia.
The Korean peninsula of Northeast Asia was not well known to the powers and authorities of Western countries in the nineteenth century, for the royal family and their government of the Chosŏn dynasty (empire of Korea) had maintained an anti-western policy. The national policy did not last a long time; rather the western civilization of advanced science, technology, literature, and culture flowed into this oriental society, where there was a strong influence of Confucianism. Although Buddhist monks were in Korea, it was not the national religion. Instead, various activities of shamanism were performed in the life and culture of the Korean people. Christianity was a new religion to the local people in the nineteenth century. Then, how did the historical development of the Western religion take place in Korea? Was it part of the nineteenth century colonialism? Which country had the greatest effect on the early Korean Protestant movement? How did the Korean scripture (Sǒnggyo) emerge and affect the widespread use of Han’gŭl language in the society? This paper not only demonstrates the unique impact of a Scottish man over the early history of Korean Christianity and the development of Korean literature in 1870s-1890s, but also argues that the Korean diaspora in Manchuria under the principle of the ‘fulfilment theology’ performed as the vessel of John Ross for the modernization of the Hermit Kingdom.
In the 17 years since the last familywide taxonomic analysis of the Drosophilidae, many studies dealing with a limited number of species or groups have been published. Most of these studies were based on molecular data, but morphological and chromosomal data also continue to be accumulated. Here, we review more than 120 recent studies and use many of those in a supertree analysis to construct a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Drosophila and related genera. Our knowledge about the phylogeny of the genus Drosophila and related genera has greatly improved over the past two decades, and many clades are now firmly supported by many independent studies. The genus Drosophila is paraphyletic and comprises four major clades interspersed with at least five other genera, warranting a revision of the genus. Despite this progress, many relationships remain unresolved. Much phylogenetic work on this important family remains to be done.
This essay considers gold grounds in early Renaissance panel painting as sites of the possible, here understood in the word’s double meaning as artistic power and mimetic potential. After examining how gold ground in art historiography is depicted as a zone oscillating between worldliness and otherworldliness, the discussion focuses on the process and meaning of gold ground in Cennino Cennini’s Libro dell’arte (c. 1390) and Gentile da Fabriano’s Virgin and Child (c. 1405, Perugia, Galleria Nazionale dell’umbria), with focus placed on the technique of granulation (opus punctorium). Also explored is how gold money and gold pictures exist in a relationship of exchange and mutual reinforcement, both depending on the faculty of sight to recognize them as bearers of value. Gold ground unfolds a spectrum of material, medial, perceptual, and devotional possibilities, which facilitates continuous passage between worlds, artisanal and climatic, pictorial and metallurgical, physical and ethereal.