A Transnational Movement
Edited by David Kim
David W. Kim
The Korean peninsula of Northeast Asia was not well known to the powers and authorities of Western countries in the nineteenth century, for the royal family and their government of the Chosŏn dynasty (empire of Korea) had maintained an anti-western policy. The national policy did not last a long time; rather the western civilization of advanced science, technology, literature, and culture flowed into this oriental society, where there was a strong influence of Confucianism. Although Buddhist monks were in Korea, it was not the national religion. Instead, various activities of shamanism were performed in the life and culture of the Korean people. Christianity was a new religion to the local people in the nineteenth century. Then, how did the historical development of the Western religion take place in Korea? Was it part of the nineteenth century colonialism? Which country had the greatest effect on the early Korean Protestant movement? How did the Korean scripture (Sǒnggyo) emerge and affect the widespread use of Han’gŭl language in the society? This paper not only demonstrates the unique impact of a Scottish man over the early history of Korean Christianity and the development of Korean literature in 1870s-1890s, but also argues that the Korean diaspora in Manchuria under the principle of the ‘fulfilment theology’ performed as the vessel of John Ross for the modernization of the Hermit Kingdom.
David Leary and S. Kim Juniper
Kim van der Linde and David Houle
In the 17 years since the last familywide taxonomic analysis of the Drosophilidae, many studies dealing with a limited number of species or groups have been published. Most of these studies were based on molecular data, but morphological and chromosomal data also continue to be accumulated. Here, we review more than 120 recent studies and use many of those in a supertree analysis to construct a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Drosophila and related genera. Our knowledge about the phylogeny of the genus Drosophila and related genera has greatly improved over the past two decades, and many clades are now firmly supported by many independent studies. The genus Drosophila is paraphyletic and comprises four major clades interspersed with at least five other genera, warranting a revision of the genus. Despite this progress, many relationships remain unresolved. Much phylogenetic work on this important family remains to be done.