This article examines the references to Messiah bar Ephraim in the Targums, and concludes that the Targumic Tosefta to Zech. 12.1 0, where Messiah bar Ephraim is vanquished, and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan to Exod. 40.9-11, where he is the vanquisher, both predate the Christian period. The apparent conflict between his suffering and conquering roles may indicate a belief that bar Ephraim's death effects the final redemption. References in the Targum to the Song of Songs are also considered.

David C. Mitchell


Following the recent death of G.H. Wilson, this article offers an appraisal of Wilson's views past and present, restates the case for an eschatologico-messianic programme in the Psalms, replies to Wilson's recent remarks on the author's own work, and points out the strengths and weaknesses of Wilson's final views.

Edited by David Moessner and Margaret Mitchell

Supplements to Novum Testamentum publishes monographs and collections of essays that make original contributions to the field of New Testament studies. This includes text-critical, philological and exegetical studies, and investigations which seek to situate early Christian texts (both canonical and non-canonical) and theology in the broader context of Jewish and Graeco-Roman history, culture, religion and literature.

The series has published an average of five volumes per year over the last 5 years.


Paul Harris, Katie Paterson and David Mitchell

Cilliers Breytenbach, Johan C. Thom, Margaret M. Mitchell and David Moesner

Margaret Mitchell, Johan C. Thom, Peder Borgen, Keith Elliott, David Moessner and Cilliers Breytenbach

Tierische Geschichte

Die Beziehung von Mensch und Tier in der Kultur der Moderne

Nigel Rothfels, Clay McShane, Joel Tarr, Aaron Skabelund, Helena Pycior, Amy Nelson, Kelly Enright, Tillmann Nechtman, Mark Barrow, Susanne Hehenberger, Renate Brucker, Mieke Roscher, Anna-Katharina Wöbse, Julie A. Smith, Robert Mitchell, Garry Marvin, Susan J. Pearson, Mary Weismantel, Dorothee Brantz, Christof Mauch and David Allan Feller

Edited by Dorothee Brantz and Christof Mauch