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In: The French Revolution and Historical Materialism
In: International Journal of Jungian Studies
In: International Journal of Jungian Studies
Author: David Parker

This short article shows that Heller’s assertion that I have announced the death of the early modern French bourgeoisie is misplaced. At the same time, it defends the view that a prolonged period of economic stasis together with the low level of bourgeois classness make it impossible to sustain Engel’s view that absolute monarchy rested on a supposed balance between it and the nobility. In conclusion, it is suggested that Marxist analysis cannot be reduced to a treatment of class-anatogonisms.

In: Historical Materialism
In: Text Comparison and Digital Creativity
In: International Journal of Jungian Studies
In: Jesus, Paul, and Early Christianity
Author: David Parker


Heide Gerstenberger’s book offers a comparative view of the origins and emergence of the bourgeois state in England and France. Both, according to her, emerged out of ancien-régime type structures which were themselves distinct from feudalism. Whilst recognising the value of Gerstenberger’s attempt to avoid economic reductionism when explaining changing power-structures, it is suggested that analytical tools such as ‘class’, ‘mode of production’ and the ‘state’, which she confines to capitalism, do have considerable utility for the analysis of precapitalist régimes. More importantly, it is suggested that her attempt to maintain that in England, as in France, an ancien-régime type society endured at least to the end of the eighteenth century obscures the fundamentally divergent paths taken by the two countries. This is compounded by her rejection of the idea of a French absolutism and an underestimation of the extent to which power-structures in England were modified by the precocious development of capitalism. Whilst suggesting that a bourgeois public space was able to develop in the interstices of structures of the ancien régime, Gersternberger fails to recognise the extent to which this had transformed the English polity by the mid-seventeenth century.

In: Historical Materialism
The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on Microfiche
Editor: David C. Parker
The Critical Editions of the New Testament
The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on microfiche

The oldest texts
The recovery of the oldest available text of the New Testament continues to occupy the attention of biblical scholars. Because the early printed editions were based on late and incorrect texts, scholars had to study the materials to find older forms of the text. We now know that to study the text of the New Testament and to recover the oldest forms of it, scholars have available over 5,500 Greek manuscripts, translations into early languages, including especially important ones in Syriac, Latin, and Coptic, and quotations in early Christian writers. The task of examining these witnesses, and collecting from them the relevant data, has occupied scholars for over three hundred years.

Principal critical editions
This collection contains the principal critical editions of the Greek New Testament produced in that time. They are of continuing value in biblical and textual scholarship, for the following reasons:
1. As some of the highest achievements of biblical scholarship.
2. Because they sometimes contain materials no longer available.
3. Because the editorial decisions of scholars of the past continue to act as a guide and resource to successive generations of scholars.

This collection
This series makes available for the first time in a single place the principal critical editions, lists of variant readings and collections of manuscript transcriptions and collations from the late seventeenth to the early twentieth century. In addition, a number of the most useful editions of the ancient versions and of ancillary materials have been included. It begins with the first large collection, compiled by John Mill and published in 1707, and ends with von Soden’s huge work of 1902-13. It thus spans two centuries of scientific and technical advance, and of manuscript discoveries. This development is parallel to the collection and classification of materials in the natural sciences. The materials in Parts 3 and 4 have been chosen because of their scarcity, their continuing value for scholarly research, and their significance in the development of the discipline.

Dr D.C. Parker, Reader in New Testament Textual Criticism and Palaeography, University of Birmingham (UK)
Author: David M. Parker

After surveying the disparate Old Testament material on tithing, this paper isolated 1 Corinthians 9 as the loudest echo of that practice. It then modelled 1Corinthians 9 and 10 as illustrative rather than regulative in its approach to the former testament. Utilizing the ‘lesser-to-greater’ (qal wāḥômer) argument inherent in 1 Corinthians 9, it developed an implied benchmark of tithing in 1 Corinthians 9 and 1 Tim. 5.17 to argue such as the base upon which NT giving is predicated. Noting the socio-economic disparity of Corinth, in comparison with the ideal distribution by which the Hebrew Scriptures regulated tithes, the paper then invoked the gift of giving from Rom. 12.8 to suggest proportional giving rather than the strict regulation of the Mosaic legislation. Finally, returning to the literary setting of 1 Corinthians 9, any conclusion, at least from the Pauline corpus, was shown to be contextually suggestive, not invariably regulative.

In: Journal of Pentecostal Theology