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David M. Parker

After surveying the disparate Old Testament material on tithing, this paper isolated 1 Corinthians 9 as the loudest echo of that practice. It then modelled 1Corinthians 9 and 10 as illustrative rather than regulative in its approach to the former testament. Utilizing the ‘lesser-to-greater’ (qal wāḥômer) argument inherent in 1 Corinthians 9, it developed an implied benchmark of tithing in 1 Corinthians 9 and 1 Tim. 5.17 to argue such as the base upon which NT giving is predicated. Noting the socio-economic disparity of Corinth, in comparison with the ideal distribution by which the Hebrew Scriptures regulated tithes, the paper then invoked the gift of giving from Rom. 12.8 to suggest proportional giving rather than the strict regulation of the Mosaic legislation. Finally, returning to the literary setting of 1 Corinthians 9, any conclusion, at least from the Pauline corpus, was shown to be contextually suggestive, not invariably regulative.

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The Critical Editions of the New Testament

The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on Microfiche

The Critical Editions of the New Testament
The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on microfiche

The oldest texts
The recovery of the oldest available text of the New Testament continues to occupy the attention of biblical scholars. Because the early printed editions were based on late and incorrect texts, scholars had to study the materials to find older forms of the text. We now know that to study the text of the New Testament and to recover the oldest forms of it, scholars have available over 5,500 Greek manuscripts, translations into early languages, including especially important ones in Syriac, Latin, and Coptic, and quotations in early Christian writers. The task of examining these witnesses, and collecting from them the relevant data, has occupied scholars for over three hundred years.

Principal critical editions
This collection contains the principal critical editions of the Greek New Testament produced in that time. They are of continuing value in biblical and textual scholarship, for the following reasons:
1. As some of the highest achievements of biblical scholarship.
2. Because they sometimes contain materials no longer available.
3. Because the editorial decisions of scholars of the past continue to act as a guide and resource to successive generations of scholars.

This collection
This series makes available for the first time in a single place the principal critical editions, lists of variant readings and collections of manuscript transcriptions and collations from the late seventeenth to the early twentieth century. In addition, a number of the most useful editions of the ancient versions and of ancillary materials have been included. It begins with the first large collection, compiled by John Mill and published in 1707, and ends with von Soden’s huge work of 1902-13. It thus spans two centuries of scientific and technical advance, and of manuscript discoveries. This development is parallel to the collection and classification of materials in the natural sciences. The materials in Parts 3 and 4 have been chosen because of their scarcity, their continuing value for scholarly research, and their significance in the development of the discipline.

Dr D.C. Parker, Reader in New Testament Textual Criticism and Palaeography, University of Birmingham (UK)
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This book provides transcriptions and images of some of the oldest parchment manuscripts of the Gospel of John in Greek. It contains also a complete critical apparatus of all the parchment manuscripts of John, including such important manuscripts as Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus. The transcriptions and plates are restricted to fragmentary and difficult-to-read copies. These havereceived the same detailed treatment as was used by the International Greek New Testament Project to make an edition of the papyri of John (Brill: 1995). The International Greek New Testament Project is a European-American project currently collaborating with the Institut für neutestamentliche Textforschung (Münster, Germany) to make a critical edition of the Gospel of John in the Editio Critica Maior.
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Jen Jamieson, Michael J. Reiss, David Allen, Lucy Asher, Matthew O. Parker, Christopher M. Wathes and Siobhan M. Abeyesinghe

Adolescents are the next generation of consumers with the potential to raise standards of farm animal welfare—to their satisfaction—if their preferences and concerns are translated into accurate market drivers and signals. There are no published data about adolescent views of farm animal welfare to allow meaningful design, implementation, and evaluation of educational strategies to improve consideration of—and behavior toward—farm animals. Knowledge of farm animal welfare, as well as beliefs and attitudes about farm animal welfare and behavioral intention relevant to it were determined in a sample of uk adolescents, using a survey incorporating an extended version of the theory of planned behavior and novel assessment tools. Our results indicate that adolescents have only a limited knowledge of welfare problems for farm animals and welfare-relevant product labels. Intentions to identify welfare standards for the animals from whom their food was derived were weak. Although they cared about farm animal welfare and agreed with fundamental principles—for example, the provision of space and the absence of pain and suffering—like adults they held limited belief in the power and responsibility that they possess through their choices as consumers; responsibility was often shifted to others, such as the government and farmers.