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  • Author or Editor: David Stanković x
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Abstract

To elucidate the historical biogeography of a species, the patterns of population divergence must be understood, and the evolutionary history of the species must be accurately known. For brown trout (Salmo trutta complex), estimating divergence times remains a challenge due to the lack of well-defined time calibration points and insufficient phylogeographic coverage in previous studies. The present work aims to improve molecular dating of mitochondrial control region sequences by using a multicalibration framework based on the latest paleogeological evidence for dating the origin of Lake Ohrid and two available Salmo fossils, including the overlooked Salmo immigratus. Our results clearly show that, contrary to common belief, the major divisions within the brown trout occurred in the Late Pliocene, not the Pleistocene. The Pliocene origin suggests that the brown trout lineages did not form because of geo(hydro)morphological changes during glaciation cycles but may be the result of orogeny and drainage evolution. In addition, increased sampling, particularly in Serbia, led to the identification of a new haplogroup (da-int) occupying an intermediate position with respect to da-es and da-bs haplogroups. While the control region can delineate brown trout lineages, its phylogenetic resolution is limited, so even extensive sampling could not further resolve the lineage level polytomies.

Open Access
In: Contributions to Zoology

Abstract

Many herpetofauna species have been introduced outside of their native range. MtDNA barcoding is regularly used to determine the provenance of such populations. The alpine newt has been introduced across the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Ireland. However, geographical mtDNA structure across the natural range of the alpine newt is still incompletely understood and certain regions are severely undersampled. We collect mtDNA sequence data of over seven hundred individuals, from both the native and the introduced range. The main new insights from our extended mtDNA phylogeography are that 1) haplotypes from Spain do not form a reciprocally monophyletic clade, but are nested inside the mtDNA clade that covers western and eastern Europe; and 2) haplotypes from the northwest Balkans form a monophyletic clade together with those from the Southern Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains. We also home in on the regions where the distinct mtDNA clades meet in nature. We show that four out of the seven distinct mtDNA clades that comprise the alpine newt are implicated in the introductions in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Ireland. In several introduced localities, two distinct mtDNA clades co-occur. As these mtDNA clades presumably represent cryptic species, we urge that the extent of genetic admixture between them is assessed from genome-wide nuclear DNA markers. We mobilized a large number of citizen scientists in this project to support the collection of DNA samples by skin swabbing and underscore the effectiveness of this sampling technique for mtDNA barcoding.

Open Access
In: Amphibia-Reptilia