Sung's Foreign Relations with Kitan Liao
Its first chapters historically contextualise the equality of Sung-Liao diplomacy and narrate how, during the late tenth and early eleventh centuries, the two states fought each other to a standstill before concluding peace at Shan-yüan in 1005.
Later chapters cover the forms and textures of peaceful diplomatic contact between Sung and Liao that endured for the rest of the century.
It will be useful for scholars and interested general readers who wish to probe beyond generalisations and explore in more detail mid-imperial China's warfare and diplomacy with its northern neighbours.
Reflections upon Ecology, Performance, Place and Indigenous Knowledge Systems
David P. Wright
David F. Wright
Denying special traits like the use of language to nonhuman animals has often been a basis for the creation of a stand-alone human sphere, apart from and above the animal world and the environmental milieu. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology shows that human communication arises from the semiosis in the extra-human world and is not self-contained. Given many recent insights in scientific studies of nonhuman animals, only a few of which are cited here, it becomes impossible to say that animals are mute, reactive entities. They too share many of the same features of communication with human beings. That said, articulating an interspecies ethic of sympathy or concern must take into account species and individual differences.
David B. Dillard-Wright
Some bioethicists have proposed a legalized market in human organs as a solution to transplant waiting lists and global poverty. Solutions to organ procurement problems that are solely market-based would unfairly shift the burdens of medical procedures onto developing nations. Market advocates base their claims on the understanding of organs as property, a position that should be problematized. Instrumentalizing people in this way is part of the broader commodification of animals and the environment. Combating the market mentality requires a return to the holistic view of bioethics that led to the founding of the field.
DAVID G. WRIGHT
Although only a single historical date --1829 -- is specified in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the crucial year during which Stephen writes his diary entries can be established with certainty as 1903. Based on that date, major episodes in the novel can also be dated. The Christmas dinner scene, for example, takes place on December 25, 1891, and all of Chapter III occurs during just a few days in December 1898. Precise knowledge of the dates in A Portrait helps us to recognize the level of control that Stephen gains over his experience by the end of the novel, and to understand the backdrop to Stephen’s reappearance in Ulysses.