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This commentary examines 4 Maccabees as a contribution to the ongoing reformulation of Jewish identity and practice in the Greek-speaking Diaspora. It analyzes the Jewish author’s interaction with, and facility in, Greek rhetorical conventions, ethical philosophy, and literary culture, giving attention also to his use and interpretation of texts and traditions from the Jewish Scriptures and other Hellenistic Jewish writings. The commentary exhibits the author’s skillful weaving together of all these resources to create a text that interprets the Torah-observant life as the fullest embodiment of the best Greek ethical ideals. A distinctive feature is the examination of how the experience of reading 4 Maccabees in Codex Sinaiticus differs from the experience of reading the eclectic text.
In: Christian Origins and Greco-Roman Culture
In: Paul and Seneca in Dialogue
In: 4 Maccabees
In: 4 Maccabees


This article presents critical texts of seven previously unpublished fragments of Exodus in Greek, written in expert uncial script and employing standard nomina sacra and critical marks, dating from between the mid-fourth to the mid-fifth century CE, and containing portions of Exod 10:3-5, 8-9, 12-15, 17-22, 24-28; 11:2-5; 12:9-12, 15-18; 26:21-25, 30-33; 30:11-15, 18-21; 34:12-15, 20-24; 35:9-17, 22-25. These seven fragments show considerable independence of both Alexandrinus and Vaticanus and resist pre-Origenian recensional work bringing the readings in line with the Hebrew. The manuscript represented by the fragments recommends itself to textual critics on the basis of its antiquity, its independence, its non-revisionist character (in regard to the MT tradition), its tendency to preserve shorter readings rather than to expand the text, and its general avoidance of carelessness in reproducing its exemplar.

In: Vetus Testamentum