State of the art regarding science education suggests linking scientific knowledge and inquiry skills acquisition with the sociocultural aspects of science in order to develop scientifically literate decision makers. The current study aims at investigating whether the Values and Knowledge Education (VaKE) instructional approach can promote beyond the ethical dimension of science, conceptual understanding in counter-intuitive concepts of science, such as Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (N-ST). Forty-four Greek sixth graders participated in a VaKE unit, which was adjusted according to science education principles and instruction for conceptual change. A pre, post and follow up measurement was carried out. A generative questionnaire was employed for conceptual understanding measurement of three N-ST issues, namely size-dependent property of gold to change, the size-dependent property of hydrophobicity and the concept of size. Results indicate that when VaKE is adopted accordingly, it can promote conceptual understanding.