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This book examines the tension between formal and informal methods in philosophy. The rise of analytic philosophy was accompanied by the development of formal logic and many successful applications of formal methods. But analytical philosophy does not rely on formal methods alone. Elements of broadly understood informal logic and logical semiotics, procedures used in natural sciences and humanities, and various kinds of intuition also belong to the philosopher’s toolkit. Papers gathered in the book concern the opposition formality–informality as well as other pairs, such as methodology versus metaphilosophy, interdisciplinarity versus intradisciplinarity, and methodological uniformity versus diversity of sciences. Problems of the nature of logic and the explanatory role of mathematical theories are also discussed.
In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy


The aim of this paper is to sketch out three methods of dealing with philosophical questions used by members of the Lvov-Warsaw School. These methods are: analysis of concepts, paraphrase of theses, and axiomatization of theories. In the first part of the paper, we provide a rudimentary analysis of the concept of method. We point to the fact that in order to characterize a certain research method, one has to indicate the aim of applying it, list its stages, and reconstruct its underlying conceptual scheme. In the second part of the paper, we describe analysis, paraphrase and axiomatization in terms of aims, steps, and conceptual tools. We also present some examples of applications of these methods in works by Kazimierz Twardowski, Jan Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Kotarbiński, Tadeusz Czeżowski, and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz.

In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy
In: Formal and Informal Methods in Philosophy