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  • Author or Editor: Dong Jin Kim x
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Abstract

Informed by the resource mobilisation theory, this article conducts a case study on Christianity in Korea, in order to explore the nexus between religion and social movements, and how this nexus could contribute to peace, rather than violence. Given its geopolitical dimensions, involving nuclear weapons and the legacy of the Cold War, the role of religion in the Korean conflict has been under-researched. Nonetheless, Christianity has influenced the Korean conflict, with its association with anticommunism, as well as with peace movements. This article argues that Christian ecumenical organisations in the context of the Korean conflict utilised their social resources for peace and reconciliation, when they rediscovered the just peace tradition in Christianity. This article contributes to theoretical and practical discussions surrounding religion, war, and peace, by conceptualising just peace in the Christian tradition, and by adding empirical substance to the nexus between ecumenism and social movement for just peace.

In: International Journal of Asian Christianity

The nematicidal activity of Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) and its purified compound were assayed against Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. The nematicidal compound was isolated from TNB using silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the nematicidal compound was conducted using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C-NMR and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found that the nematicidal compound purified from TNB was gallic acid (GA) or 3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that GA treatment resulted in 20.3, 37.5, 73.3, 88.3 and 95.8% hatch inhibition at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg ml−1 after 3 days, respectively, of incubation. Eggshells appeared to be deformed and destroyed at 2 and 3 days after incubation with a GA concentration of 1.0 mg ml−1, respectively. Additionally, after treatment with a GA concentration of 1.0 mg ml−1, mortality of second-stage juveniles of M. incognita was 65.0, 75.0, 96.7 and 100% at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h incubation, respectively.

In: Nematology

The potential use of Cinnamomum aromaticum and its active compound to control Meloidogyne incognita was investigated in vitro and in pot experiments. One compound, cinnamyl acetate, was isolated by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, and identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. Juvenile movement and hatch inhibition by cinnamyl acetate was dependent on both the concentration and incubation time of the cinnamyl acetate. Treatment with 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125 μg ml−1 of cinnamyl acetate resulted in 33.7, 65.1, 81.1, 100 and 100% inhibition of movement of second-stage juveniles, respectively, at 50 min after incubation. The juvenile movement inhibition was <20% at the tested concentrations at 10 min after incubation. Cinnamyl acetate treatment resulted in 20.8, 39.4, 81.3 and 90.7% hatch inhibition at 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg ml−1, respectively, at 3 days after incubation and 21.6, 39.3, 73.2 and 88.7% hatch inhibition at 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg ml−1, respectively at 6 days after incubation. In pot tests, C. aromaticum crude extracts effectively inhibited infection of M. incognita on cucumber plants. Cinnamomum aromaticum crude extracts applied at 0.5 and 1.0 mg (g soil)−1 significantly reduced the numbers of galls caused by M. incognita. The activities of pathogenesis-related proteins as β-1,3-glucanase and peroxidase on leaves of plants treated with C. aromaticum crude extracts were significantly higher than those on leaves of control plants.

In: Nematology

Auxarthron reticulatum DY-2 was isolated from field soils in Jeonnam Province, South Korea, and its culture filtrate was active as a bionematicide agent against the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. The nematicidal activity against B. mucronatus was proportional to the concentration of the culture filtrate. The nematicidal compounds, dimethyl fumarate and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, were isolated and identified from A. reticulatum DY-2 culture filtrate using silica gel column chromatography combined with high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bioassays on nematicidal activity revealed that bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and dimethyl fumarate at 1% concentration resulted in 70 and 100% mortality of B. mucronatus, respectively, after 48 h exposure. This is the first report that these two compounds exhibit a property of nematicidal activity, especially on Bursaphelenchus spp.

In: Nematology

Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes are distributed worldwide and affect a broad range of important agronomic plant species. Chitinolytic bacteria were evaluated as potential biological control agents of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on tomato. After transplantation of seedlings into pots containing soil amended with chitin compost, chitin broth, or respective controls, soil was inoculated with nematode eggs and infective second-stage juveniles (J2). Samples taken at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after inoculation indicated that fresh weights of plants did not vary between treatments or between treatments and controls. The gall index was lower in the plants grown in the chitin-amended soil at each time point. Activities of soil chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase were greater in those soils amended with chitin compost and chitin broth. Gall index of tomato root was negatively correlated with soil chitinase activity. Activities of tomato root chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase were higher in plants growing in non-chitin-amended soil at 6 and 8 weeks after nematode infestation. Chitinase activity in tomato root was positively correlated with the gall index of tomato root. The results indicate the potential of chitinase producing bacteria to alleviate nematode parasitism in important vegetable crops.

In: Nematology