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(a.), a type of decoration typical for Islamic architecture all over the central and eastern parts of the Muslim world; for its counterpart in the Muslim West, see muḳarbaṣ. The term derives from the Greek κορωνίσ (Latin coronis , Fr. corniche , Eng. cornice ), and has no explanation whatsoever in any of the Arabic dictionaries that could be associated with its function in Islamic architecture. It is therefore a popular term, or rather, a mason’s technical term.

in Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Online (EI-2 English)

, the eocene limestone plateau that borders the city of Cairo to the east, between Ṭurā near the Nile in the south and al-D̲j̲abal al-Aḥmar in the north, the Red Mountain which is near the modern quarter of ʿAbbāsiyya. In Islamic tradition, the Muḳaṭṭam is considered as a sacred mountain. Before Islam, in Christian tradition, al-Muḳaṭṭam, like all the desert mountains of Egypt, was associated with monasteries, oratories and caves for meditation and seclusion. Abū Ṣāliḥ the Armenian, who wrote in the early 7th/13th century, also designates it, perhaps under Muslim influence, as sacred (63).

in Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Online (EI-2 English)

(a., pl. ribāʿ ) originally means home, domicile, home town or home country; the verb rabaʿa means “to dwell”. In the context of Cairene architecture, it designates a type of urban dwelling which is a rental multi-unit building founded for investment. It can also refer to the living quarters belonging to a religious institution.

in Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Online (EI-2 English)

(a., pl, ribāʿ), à l’origine, «foyer, domicile, ville ou pays de résidence»; le verbe rabaʿa signifie «habiter». Dans le contexte de l’architecture du Caire, le mot désigne un type d’habitation urbaine consistant en un immeuble de rapport de plusieurs appartements construit pour investir. Il peut aussi s’appliquer aux locaux de séjour appartenant à une institution religieuse.

in Encyclopédie de l'Islam en ligne (EI-2 French)

, plateau calcaire éocène qui borde la ville du Caire à l’Est, entre Ṭurā, près du Nil au Sud et, au Nord, al-Ḏj̲abal al-Aḥmar la «Montagne Rouge» qui se trouve près du quartier moderne de ʿAbbāsiyya. Dans la tradition islamique, le Muḳaṭṭam est considéré comme une montagne sacrée. Avant l’Islam, dans la tradition chrétienne, al-Muḳaṭṭam, comme toutes les montagnes désertiques d’Égypte, évoquait des monastères, des oratoires et autres cavernes propices à la méditation et à la retraite. L’Arménien Abū Ṣāliḥ, qui écrivait au début du VIIe/XIIIe siècle, le qualifie également de sacré, peut-être sous l’influence de l’Islam.

in Encyclopédie de l'Islam en ligne (EI-2 French)

(a.), type de décoration spécifique de l’architecture islamique sur toute l’étendue des régions centrales et orientales du monde musulman; sur son pendant dans l’Occident musulman, voir Muḳarbaṣ. Le mot provient du grec κορωνίΣ; (latin coronis, fr. corniche, angl. comice); aucun dictionnaire arabe ne lui donne d’explication en relation avec sa fonction dans l’architecture islamique. Il s’agit donc d’un terme populaire, ou mieux encore d’un terme technique de maçon.

in Encyclopédie de l'Islam en ligne (EI-2 French)

Hollow or concave receptacles for conveying food and drink. As with qurʾānic religious terminology, some of the Qurʾān's cultural vocabulary, such as the various lexemes for cups and vessels, are of non-Arabic origin (see foreign vocabulary ). As noted by Arthur Jeffery and others who have investigated the origins of foreign words in the Qurʾān, the borrowings came from other Semitic languages, such as Aramaic, Nabatean, Syriac, Ethiopian, as well as from Persian and Greek. Eleonore HaeuptnerHaeuptner, E. i, 490a ii, 544a 's study on material culture in the Qurʾān deals with the relationship between the references to material culture in the Qurʾān on the one hand — not so much focusing on specific vocabulary, but rather on general categories to which the terms belong — and pre-Islamic Arab culture on the other, as it is known from poetry and from other sources, such as ḥadīth and biographies (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ), presenting a panorama of the cultural environment of the Qurʾān. At least as important perhaps as the etymology of the material-cultural terms is the pattern of their occurrences. The enumeration of vessels presented below reveals such patterns with regards to certain lexemes. Some words are exclusively associated with specific contexts or certain stories and do not occur elsewhere. For example, kaʾs, akwāb, abārīq, and qawārīr, which are of diverse origins and all of which refer to various types of drinking vessels, occur only in descriptions of the pleasures of paradise (q.v.) whereas the words ṣuwāʿṣuwāʿ i, 490a i, 491a ii, 219a iii, 334a and siqāya, which also translate as drinking vessels, are used only in q 12 (“Joseph,” Sūrat Yūsuf) where none of the previous paradisiacal vessels are mentioned. Ṣiḥāfṣaḥfa, pl. ṣiḥāf i, 490a i, 491a ii, 276a , a kind of dish described as made from gold (q.v.) and “vessels” (āniyya, sing. ināʾ), which are described as made from silver, occur only in the context of descriptions of paradise. The word zujājazujāja i, 490a i, 491a , like qārūra, is usually associated with a glass vessel, but the former is used only in the symbolic context of the oil lamp (q.v.) in the Light Verse (āyat al-nūrāyat al-nūr i, 490a i, 491a ii, 547a iii, 108a iii, 187b v, 155a v, 427b ,q 24:35; see also anointing ) whereas the latter is used only in a paradisiacal context. The following list of qurʾānic terms for vessels is arranged alphabetically. Abārīq (sing. ibrīqibrīq, pl. abārīq i, 490a ii, 219a ii, 276a ), ewer, jug: Like kaʾs and akwāb, the word abārīq is used in the context of paradise. It occurs only once and in the plural form (q 56:18). Akwāb (sing. kūb), goblet: Like kaʾs the word is used in the context of paradisiacal drinks. In q 43:71 the cups are golden, in q 76:15 they are made of silver. In q 56:18 the cup contains a wine that neither causes headache nor intoxicates (see intoxicants ). It occurs only in the plural form (q 43:71; 56:18; 76:15; 88:14). Āniyya min fiḍḍa, silver vessels: Like kaʾs and akwāb, the term appears in the context of the pleasures of paradise (q 76:15). Dalwdalw i, 490b , pail: It occurs only once, in q 12 (“Joseph,” Sūrat Yūsuf), which relates the story of Joseph (q.v.). Thrown by his brothers (see brother and brotherhood ) into a well (see wells and springs), Joseph was found by someone who was drawing water from the well with his pail (q 12:19). Jifān (sing. jafna), basin: The word is used once, in the plural, to describe basins as large as troughs in King Solomon's (q.v.) palace (q 34:13; see jinn; art and architecture and the qurʾān). Kaʾs, cup: The word occurs only in the singular, and in the context of the pleasures of paradise where the believers will be served in cups a drink (wine) from a paradisiacal well. In verse q 76:5 the water in the cup is camphor-flavored (kāfūr, see camphor ); in q 76:17 the drink is ginger-flavored (zanjabīlzanjabīl i, 490b ii, 217b ii, 229a ii, 305b v, 62b v, 464b , cf. q 37:45; 56:18; 52:23; 76:5, 17; 78:34). Qawārīr (sing. qārūra), a glass vessel, perhaps a bottle: It is described as made of silver, which could still mean that it is a glass vessel, but comparable to or as shiny as silver. The word is used in the plural and in the context of paradisiacal delights; the believers will be served in such vessels as much as they like (q 76:15-6; see belief and unbelief ). Qudūr (sing. qidra), cauldrons: The term occurs only once in the text and in the plural, referring to built-in cauldrons which the jinn made for King Solomon's palace (q 34:13). Mikyālikyāl i, 490b ii, 544b , a measuring vessel: The word is used in the singular to- gether with mīzānmīzān, pl. mawāzīni, 491aii, 48bii, 544bii, 545aii, 545biii, 69biii, 70aiii, 140biii, 334biii, 389biv, 170a iv, 312a iv, 313a iv, 313b in the metaphorical sense of justice (q 11:84-5; see weights and measures; measurement; metaphor). Ṣiḥāf (sing. ṣaḥfa), originally meaning a flat surface, in the Qurʾān the term refers to dishes. It occurs in the plural in the description of paradise, wherein the believers will be served in golden dishes (q 43:71). Siqāya, drinking cup: The word is used in the singular, with two different meanings. At q 12:70, Joseph places a cup (siqāyasiqāya i, 490a i, 491a ) in his youngest brother's saddlebag (see benjamin ). Used in the context of pilgrimage (q.v.) in q 9:19, however, it means a water basin. Ṣuwāʿ (from ṣāʿaṣāʿa i, 491a iii, 336b , yaṣūʿu, to measure), a drinking cup: The word is used once, as a synonym for siqāya, the cup which Joseph placed in his brother's bag. The ṣuwāʿ is described as a royal vessel (ṣuwāʿ al-malik,q 12:72). Zujāja, glass vessel: The term occurs only once and in the singular, at q 24:35(āyat al-nūr). The lamp that symbolizes the divine light is described as including a zujāja or glass vessel, which contains the oil of an olive tree.

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

Devices used by humans to assist them with their daily routines. There is not much literature dealing with material culture in the Qurʾān (see material culture and the qurʾān ). Arthur Jeffery (For. vocab.) and others who investigated the origins of foreign words in the Qurʾān, note that many of the cultural terms were of non-Arabic origin (see foreign vocabulary ). The borrowings for qurʾānic cultural (and religious) terminology came from other Semitic languages, such as Aramaic, Nabatean, Syriac, and Ethiopic, as well as from Persian and Greek. The studies dealing with foreign words in the Qurʾān, however, show that the identification alone of borrowings from other Semitic or from non-Semitic languages does not allow one to draw conclusions about the significance of their use in the Qurʾān. It is at least as important to know how far back the borrowing goes or if its occurrence in the Qurʾān was indeed an innovation. A panorama of the cultural environment of the Qurʾān is presented in Eleonore Haeuptner's study on material culture in the Qurʾān (Koranische Hinweise), which deals with the relationship between the references to material culture in the Qurʾān — not only in terms of individual words, but rather of subjects — and pre-Islamic Arab culture, as it is known from poetry and other sources such as ḥadīth and biographies (see pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān ).

in Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online