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An Overview of Social Policy in the Republics of North Macedonia and Montenegro
Volume Editors: Marzena Żakowska and Dorota Domalewska
The book offers a comprehensive overview of social security in the Balkan states. Social security is presented from a broad perspective as a mechanism that addresses human needs, provides protection against social risks, reduces social tensions and secures peace. Various sectors of social policy, pension systems, health care systems, disability insurance, labor policy as well as social risks, such as poverty and unemployment, have been analyzed from historical, economic, political, sociological and security perspective. The book also offers recommendations for improving the level of social security in the region.

Contributors are: Maja Bacović, Agata Domachowska, Dorota Domalewska, Tomasz Ferfecki, Afet Mamuti, Katerina Mitevska Petrusheva, Natalija Perišić, Kire Sharlamanov, Katerina Veljanovska Blazhevska, and Marzena Żakowska.
In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 1
In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 1
In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 1
In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 1
An Overview of Social Policy in Croatia, Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria
Volume Editors: Marzena Żakowska and Dorota Domalewska
This book offers a comprehensive overview of social security in the Balkan states. Social security is presented from a broad perspective as a mechanism that addresses human needs, provides protection against social risks, reduces social tensions and secures peace. Various sectors of social policy, pension systems, health care systems, disability insurance, labor policy as well as social risks, such as poverty and unemployment have been analyzed from historical, economic, political, sociological and security perspective. The book also offers recommendations for improving the level of social security in the region.

Contributors are: Predrag Bejaković, Mirela Cristea, Dorota Domalewska, Nikos Kourachanis, Effrosyni E. Kouskouna, Christos Koutsampelas, Velibor Lalić, Shkëlzen Macukulli, Irina Mindova Docheva, Grațiela Georgiana Noja, Teuta Nunaj Kortoci, Mile Šikman, Aspasia Strantzalou, Nevenko Vranješ, and Marzena Żakowska.

Abstract

Bulgaria has been implementing radical structural reforms to ensure economic stability and equitable growth since the end of 1989. However, a significant fall in wages, rising unemployment, a worsening old-age-dependency ratio, a decline in fertility rates, and high emigration outflows have put the social security system in Bulgaria under increasing strain. The Bulgarian authorities have responded to these trends by implementing a series of reforms designed to maintain the sustainability of the system. The aim of this chapter is to investigate broad issues concerning the pension system in Bulgaria and the economic, demographic, and social determinants that affect its sustainability. The contemporary model of the Bulgarian pension system is based on two main legislative acts: the Social Insurance Fund Act, adopted in 1996, and the Social Insurance Code, implemented in 2003. Social insurance is based on the principles of general and obligatory insurance, solidarity among the people insured, equal rights of insured people, social dialogue in the management of the social insurance system, and a fund-based organization of resources. This study employs desk research and a descriptive analysis of data to investigate the economic, demographic, and social dimensions of pension reform in Bulgaria. The findings suggest the need to further reform retirement policies because they need to be based on a cost-effective, multi-faceted policy that encompasses both pension schemes and a wider system of social protection. Furthermore, the fiscal risks resulting from demographic developments need to be considered in order to ensure the long-term sustainability of the pension system.

In: Social Security in the Balkans – Volume 1