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Prepared according to the Vocalization, Accents, and Masora of Aaron ben Moses ben Asher in the Leningrad Codex, with Adaptations to Halakhic Requirements
The most accurate edition of the Leningrad Codex in print, the Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia presents a thoroughly revised, reset, and redesigned edition of the Hebrew Bible meticulously prepared by renowned masoretic scholar Aron Dotan. The BHL includes features that suit it for research, classroom, and liturgical use. Scholars will find this a welcome edition of the Leningrad Codex, the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible, whose text and layout it precisely follows. A foreword and four appendices provide the researcher with important details and distinctions about the codex. In addition to being a scientific edition, it was originally commissioned in Israel to follow the necessary adaptations that qualify it for Jewish liturgical use, such as divisions into weekly portions and their subdivisions for synagogue reading.
In: Domestic Devotions in the Early Modern World


Talmudic sources recognize the dedication of assets for the benefit of the Temple alone (heqdesh). In Islamic countries, Jews encountered another form of asset endowment – the Islamic waqf – and fully embraced it. This article explores the utilization of waqf from a fresh perspective, focusing on urban communities in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, to examine its role in constructing community members’ self-identity. The allocation of waqf beneficiaries allowed the endower to delineate the community’s boundaries in their mind, reflecting the desired social circles they sought to be part of.

Analyzing documents spanning centuries reveals ongoing changes in this realm. Social and demographic shifts periodically led to reductions in the circles of waqf beneficiaries. The strained relations between Rabbanites and Karaites during the Mamluk Period, as well as waves of Jewish immigration from Europe and North Africa to the eastern Mediterranean in the late Mamluk and early Ottoman periods, influenced the norms governing the endowment of houses, land, and money among Jewish property owners. These norms evolved again during the late Ottoman period when the boundaries between different Jewish groups became more blurred.

Open Access
In: Endowment Studies
In: Textus
In: Textus
In: Congress Volume Ljubljana 2007
In: Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia
In: Biblia Hebraica Leningradensia