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Resistance, Reform, and Democracy
Education and the Arab Spring: Resistance, Reform, and Democracy explores the current debate about education in the Middle East and North Africa post-Arab Spring. It draws from a variety of conceptual frameworks rooted in different disciplines and fields, such as education, religious and cultural studies, political science, and Arab studies. The book is, in part, a response to an increased demand since the Arab Spring—by universities, cultural institutions, think-tanks, education officials, policymakers and journalists—for a richer, deeper understanding of the role of education in post-Arab Spring states and societies. The book adds a unique and much-needed perspective to this field: its specific focus is on the Arab context, and its analysis is of issues of particular relevance to a changing world order. The great mix of experiences of the contributors attests to the excellent quality of this promising work.
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Following the Arab Spring, democracy exercised through free and fair elections had allowed Islamist political parties to gain power in Egypt. There was a transformation happening in the ideology of Islamists, who were increasingly trying to influence legislation through democratic processes and social activism. It could be argued that for a time, the u.s. and other Western governments no longer viewed Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood as a threat comparable with Jihadist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This did not translate into a domestic political success, however, once Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood was elected into power in 2012, it simplified good governance to a single and effective slogan: “Islam is the solution!” Yet, it had no real solution to the everyday problems of Egyptians and the sheer chaos that characterizes the daily lives of its people. In a devout region with growing inequality and poverty, religious credentials will matter less than offering specific solutions to these growing social issues. This paper argues that the myth of political Islam has been exposed in Egypt and that the Muslim Brotherhood’s identity, torn between political pragmatism and religious conservatism, shaped its political actions under Morsi’s rule.

In: Sociology of Islam
In: Education and the Arab Spring
In: Education and the Arab Spring
In: Education and the Arab Spring
In: Education and the Arab Spring
In: Education and the Arab Spring
In: Education and the Arab Spring

Abstract

This article traces the manifestations of the newly adapted artistic form of “calligraffiti,” or the synthetic braiding of poetry and graffiti on what became known as the “walls of protest” in post-2011 Egypt. This new mode of writing/drawing answers to the immediacy of an unprecedented revolutionary moment in Egypt and rewrites Egyptian history in peculiar artistic instantaneity. The image-text discursive dynamics of this hybrid form of expression enhance our understanding of the 2011 Egyptian uprising, enabling us to explore the potential of revolutionary impulse for stretching new artistic forms. This article therefore engages calligraffiti as a means to expand the scope of the literary, and specifically the poetic, to involve the visual dimension as coupled with the conceptual (linguistic). In this border- and genre-crossing artistic mode, Arabic poetry and graffiti meld as a revolutionary form of self-expression that defies local and international hegemonic, patriarchal regimes. Calligraffiti serves not only as a means of registering a revolutionary moment in Egypt or of celebrating the epiphany of the uprising, but more importantly it stands as a cultural and literary tool developed and used by Egyptian artists to represent the revolutionary artistic self and galvanize dissent during a highly contested moment in Egypt’s history. The article thus traces the ways that the calligraffiti of Egyptian artists like Bahiyyah Shihāb (Bahia Shehab) and ʿUmar Fatḥī (Omar Fathy), ʿAmmār Abū Bakr (Ammar Abo Bakr), Ganzīr (Ganzeer), Al-Mushīr (El-Moshir) and ʿAlāʾ ʿAwaḍ (Alaa Awad), are enmeshed with the poetic lines of Amal Dunqul, Pablo Neruda, and Yāsir al-Manawahlī (Yasser el-Manawahly) on the artistic canvas of muralled Egyptian revolution.

In: Journal of Arabic Literature
The Journal of Digital Islamicate Research (JDIR) is a peer-reviewed journal covering the field of Middle Eastern and Islamicate Digital Humanities (DH). It aspires to adjust the computational, visualization and big data methods for the exploration of contemporary and historical cultures (also known as Cultural Analytics, CA) to the emerging field of Middle Eastern and Islamic Digital Humanities, and apply these methods to it. This would enhance the distant and close readings of massive amounts of cultural data (written material, as well as visuals and audio) in Middle Eastern languages in order to derive culturally-relevant insights from it. The Journal also aims to promote the study of Arabic-language and other Arabic-script DH work (e.g., Persian, Ottoman, Urdu), and non-Muslim DH in Islamicate lands (e.g. the Geniza researchers that are moving into DH), in addition to Islamicate materials that are digital-born or digitally-reformatted. This will bring forth innovative tools and develop new technical research methods for a refreshing analysis of Middle Eastern and Islamic languages, literatures, cultures, and history in a computer-supported way. The Journal is a leading initiative in the Digital Humanities of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies that provides an online platform for the cross fertilization of different academic traditions, fields, and disciplines.

مجلة البحوث الإسلامية الرقمية مجلة محكمة تغطي الإنسانيات الرقمية في مجال الدراسات الشرق أوسطية والإسلامية. وهي تطمح إلى الإفادة من الأدوات الحاسوبية التي تطبق عدة مناهج وتقنيات (منها معالجة اللغة البشرية وتحليل شبكات الاتصال وإعداد التقنيات البصرية واستخراج البيانات) في دراسة المكونات الثقافية بطريقة مفيدة للأبحاث في العلوم الإنسانية ولاستكشاف الثقافات المعاصرة والقديمة (وهو المبحث الأكاديمي الموسوم بالتحليل الثقافي). وهذا من شأنه أن يعمق القراءات الآلية والبشرية لكميات هائلة من المنتجات الثقافية (المواد المكتوبة والمرئية والصوتية) باللغات الشرق أوسطية لاستخلاص رؤى ثقافيّة أصيلة وجديدة من خلالها. وتهدف المجلة كذلك إلى تعزيز دراسة اللغة العربية وغيرها من المنتجات الثقافية المكتوبة بالحروف العربية (كالفارسية والتركية العثمانية والأردية)، والمنتجات المتعلقة بغير المسلمين في الأراضي الإسلامية (هذا يشمل على سبيل المثال الدراسات البحثية حول وثائق الجينيزا التي تتحول إلى الإنسانيات الرقمية)، بالإضافة إلى المواد الإسلامية التي ولدت رقميًا أو أعيد تنسيقها رقميًا. وبذلك تسهم المجلة في تقديم أدوات مبتكرة وتطوير طرق بحث تقنية جديدة تساعد في تقديم تحليلات رصينة للغات الشرق الأوسطية والإسلامية والآداب والثقافات والتاريخ بطريقة مدعومة حاسوبيا. وبذا تمثل المجلة مبادرة رائدة في الإنسانيات الرقمية في مجال الدراسات الشرق أوسطية والإسلامية، إلى جانب طرح منصة عبر الإنترنت لإحداث تلاقح وتمازج ما بين الحقول البحثية والمجالات الأكاديمية المختلفة. تُعنى المجلة بنشر مقالاتٍ باللُّغة العربية أو باللُّغة الإنجليزية.