This article explores the emergence of the sage as an exemplar in Greek and Jewish antiquity. Greek philosophical writings and Jewish literary accounts are analysed, the latter including texts written in both Hebrew and Greek. The Greek and Jewish sources are compared in order to highlight (dis)similarities between them. It will be argued that the conception of the sage as an idealized figure and object of emulation originates from the classical Greek world, but it becomes integrated into the Jewish discourse on wisdom and good life in the later Hellenistic period. In spite of this shared element, the portrayals of the sage vary regarding the amount of concreteness and the discursive strategies in which his exemplarity is constructed.
This paper concerns the use of scripture in 4QBeatitudes (4Q525). The analysis of quotations and allusions shows that the status of Proverbs 1–9 as a source is primary, providing the model and salient motifs for the work. The use of Proverbs can, moreover, be associated with rewriting processes. Two features are distinctive: The author followed the order of the source to some extent in a manner reminiscent of rewriting. The motifs of female folly and her house were also used as a springboard in the creation of a poem (frg. 15). These observations suggest that 4Q525 reflects exegetical and interpretative methods attested in non-sapiential contexts. 4Q525 cannot be understood without recognizing its textual links to Proverbs, but other sources are similarly significant. The role of Psalms in particular can be described as ancillary and further directs the audience towards a Torah-centred approach to wisdom as well as implying a connection to the worship traditions of the Temple.