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International Territorial Administration, Transitional Authority and Foreign Occupation in Theory and Practice
The concept of international administrations of territory, in which comprehensive administrative powers are exercised by, on behalf of or with the agreement of the United Nations has recently re-emerged in the context of reconstructing (parts of) states after conflict. Although in Kosovo and East Timor, the UN was endowed with wide-ranging executive and legislative powers, in the subsequent operations in Afghanistan it was decided, to principally rely on local capacity with minimal international participation, and in Iraq, administrative power was exercised by the occupying powers. The objectives are however very similar.
This work first delineates the origins of the granting of administrative functions to international actors, and analyses the context in which it has resurfaced, namely post-conflict peace-building or reconstruction. Secondly, the book methodically establishes the legal framework applicable to post-conflict administrations and peace-building operations, by taking into account the post-conflict scenario in which they operate. Based on these two analyses, an enquiry into the practice of the reconstruction processes in Kosovo, East Timor, Afghanistan and Iraq is undertaken, to analyse and understand the influence of the international legal framework and the different approaches on the implementation of the mandates. Finally, the book concludes with an analysis of questions on exit strategies, local ownership, the internationalisation of domestic institutions, and the need for a comprehensive approach towards post-conflict reconstruction.
In: The Interpretation and Application of the European Convention of Human Rights
In: Foreign Investment in the Energy Sector

The peace versus justice dilemma often presented as paramount in post-conflict situations is more complex and ignores the factual and legal importance of economic reconstruction. The economic aspect of un post-conflict peacebuilding missions, has however not received much attention over the past years. Yet, the mandates granted to international actors after conflicts have undoubtedly evolved throughout the years. From the imposition of a neutral force between the parties to a conflict, to maintaining peace and stability, the un and other international organizations have taken up various responsibilities in the administration of States and territories.

The focus on economic reconstruction needs to be viewed in the context of a changed strategy towards conflicts, in which the focus is laid on ensuring that the causes of the conflict are eliminated. The 1990s, thus, signaled an important and comprehensive shift in the un’s engagement in post-conflict States, which resulted in the establishment of unprecedented missions which included important economic reconstruction activities, such as the international administration missions in Kosovo and East Timor. In recent years however, there have been no comprehensive peacebuilding missions which included major economic reforms in their mandate. There may be multiple reasons for this, but, as is argued, in essence it is the result of two factors. First, international administrative missions, by their very nature, are more adequate tools to engage in comprehensive post-conflict reconstruction efforts including far-reaching economic reforms. Secondly, international financial institution have gradually been moving away from a strict application of their free market policy, towards paying more attention to pluralist rule of law reforms which in turn will trigger economic development.

In: Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online
In: Immunity of International Organizations
In: Immunity of International Organizations
In: International Investment Law

The functional underpinning of institutional immunity remains crucial today in order to guarantee the independent fulfilment by the organization of its mandate. Despite this relatively firmly established principle, domestic courts and tribunals have shown in recent cases that they are very critical of the idea of the absolute character of international organization immunity, not the least in relation to the right of access to court, guaranteed inter alia by Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Belgium is host to between 50 and 100 international organizations or liaison offices of international organizations, most of which are located in Brussels. For that reason, the number of potential disputes involving an international organization in Belgium is important. This paper gives an overview of the official Belgian policy in respect of international organization immunity, and analyses relevant Belgian case-law that considers the rationale behind the grant of privileges and immunities to international organizations. It then considers the source of an international organization’s immunity, the scope of that immunity, and the obligation to provide for alternative means of dispute settlement and the individual’s right of access to court.

In: International Organizations Law Review

Recent situations of States recovering from conflict show that foreign direct investment (FDI) act as a double-edged sword and are characterized by an inherent paradox. Indeed, on the one hand, post-conflict economic reconstruction and development requires and relies on FDI. On the other, rights granted to foreign investors before and during the post-conflict phase may result in a backlash for States recovering from conflict because rights granted to foreign investors have – besides the general tensions caused by such instruments – specific consequences in post-conflict situations due to the economic, security-related, social and demographic specificities of those situations. This article maps and charts the issues raised by FDI protection in post-conflict situations, and thus provides the context for the debate of the interaction between FDI regulation and post-conflict situation.

In: The Journal of World Investment & Trade