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In: Pristionchus pacificus
In: Pristionchus pacificus
In: Pristionchus pacificus
In: Pristionchus pacificus

A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Levipalatum texanum n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Texas and baited from soil in Virginia, USA. Levipalatum n. gen. is circumscribed by stomatal and pharyngeal morphology, namely a long, hooked dorsal tooth connected to a ‘palate’ projecting anteriad and mediad, subventral telostegostomatal ridges of denticles, and the dorsal radius of the pharynx bulging anteriad. The males of the new species are distinguished from most other Diplogastridae by the frequent presence of ten pairs of genital papillae. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from 11 ribosomal protein-coding genes and a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene strongly support L. texanum n. gen., n. sp. to be a sister group to Rhabditolaimus, which lacks all the stegostomatal and pharyngeal characters diagnosing the new genus. The new species expands comparative studies of the radiation of feeding morphology that are anchored on the model organism Pristionchus pacificus. The phylogenetic position of L. texanum n. gen., n. sp. indicates a new case of convergent evolution of hermaphroditism in Diplogastridae.

In: Nematology

Two commensal associates of bees, Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. from the Dufour’s gland of a cellophane bee (Colletes thoracicus) from Maryland, USA, and A. seani n. sp. from the abdominal glands of an andrenid bee (Andrena alleghaniensis) from New York, USA, are described and illustrated. Both species were collected as dauers from their respective hosts and cultured on bacteria on tryptic soy broth (TSB) or NGM agar. Allodiplogaster josephi n. sp. and A. seani n. sp. are morphologically closer to each other than to other species of Allodiplogaster, which was recently revised to include 37 valid species. However, the two new species are distinguished by reproductive isolation, shape of the spicule manubrium, host associations and molecular characters, the latter in sequences of the near-full length small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and partial mitochondrial COI. Morphological characterisation was supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed furcation of both v5 and v6 male genital papillae, consistent with previous reports for species of the henrichae group of Allodiplogaster.

In: Nematology

Two new species of diplogastrid nematodes, Sudhausia aristotokia n. gen., n. sp. and S. crassa n. gen., n. sp., were isolated from dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Ghana and South Africa, respectively. Sudhausia n. gen. is circumscribed by stomatal morphology, namely the presence of a tube-shaped gymnostom, a pair of conical subventral denticles in the metastegostom, and a disk-like telostegostom bearing minute conical denticles. Other characters distinguishing the new genus are the presence of a bursa in the male and a vulva lined anteriorly and posteriorly by columns of sac-like cells. The two new species, both of which are hermaphroditic, are distinguished from each other by spicule and gubernaculum morphology, male papillae arrangement, bursal shape, vaginal morphology, and phasmid position. A suite of unusual developmental traits that distinguishes Sudhausia n. spp. includes maturation of the gonad and development of juvenile progeny before moulting to adulthood, a two-fold increase in embryo size during development, and constitutive vivipary. A phylogeny inferred from 11 ribosomal protein-coding genes and a fragment of the small subunit rRNA gene show Sudhausia n. gen. to be divergent from other sequenced diplogastrid taxa, including those characterised by a tube-like stoma. The two new species represent useful new reference points for the study of feeding-structure evolution in Diplogastridae.

In: Nematology

Abstract

Cervidellus sonorensis n. sp. is described from sand near the roots of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) from Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA, USA. It is distinguished from others in the genus by the combination of a greatly distended, guitar-shaped corpus and the morphology of the lips and labial probolae. Distinctive features include a large pharyngeal metacorpus with a double swelling, a knob-like ledge at the base of each labial probola and lips with five filamentous tines, the most apical of which are those closest to the primary axil. One male individual was discovered in this parthenogenetic species. Characters used to diagnose C. sonorensis n. sp. are not definitive with respect to other genera and are probably plesiomorphic or convergent in light of DNA-based phylogenetic hypotheses. The position of C. sonorensis n. sp. and morphologically close congeners in relation to species of Nothacrobeles and Paracrobeles is discussed.

In: Nematology

Abstract

Myolaimus byersi n. sp., a phoretic associate of the crane fly, Limonia (Rhipidia) schwarzi (Diptera: Limoniidae), was recovered from moist and decaying tissue from the crown shaft of a living spindle palm, Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, in southern Florida and is described herein. Dauers were carried in the abdominal folds of male and female L. schwarzi. Examination of the highly mobile crane fly larvae and pupae confirmed that the dauers were externally associated with the cuticle. Dauers from crane flies were culturable to adults on 1/20 strength TSB agar. The association appears to be relatively host specific. SEM studies, early embryonic development, dauers, molecular data and TEM ultrastructural comparisons of the stoma, sensory structures and sperm are used to discuss the relative placement of Myolaimus within the Nematoda. The stoma resembles diplogastrids in being strongly anisomorphic with an enlarged dorsal sector of the stegostom, yet also resembles rhabditids in having three triangular flaps in the metastegostom and matches cephalobs and panagrolaims in having a pharyngeal collar with two sets of three interradial muscles followed by two sets of six adradial muscles. The ultrastructure of the cheilostom epidermis shows a high degree of conservation with several Rhabditida. The sperm of M. byersi n. sp. is nearly identical to that of Caenorhabditis elegans. In early cell division, M. byersi n. sp. is closest to Parascaris equorum followed by C. elegans. Myolaimus apparently represents a divergent lineage that has followed a non-coalescing trajectory for a long time, allowing it to retain some highly conserved characters while also developing some surprisingly unique features, such as a baggy cuticle and males that lack a gubernaculum or spicules.

In: Nematology

A new species of diplogastrid nematode, isolated in a previous survey of nematodes associated with stag beetles in Japan, is described as Parapristionchus giblindavisi n. gen., n. sp. Parapristionchus n. gen. differs from other diplogastrid genera chiefly by its stomatal morphology. Distinguishing the genus are the presence of a claw-like dorsal tooth in both the eurystomatous and stenostomatous forms and the division of the cheilostom into 12 plates lacking apical flaps. According to phylogenetic analysis of nine ribosomal protein gene sequences, Parapristionchus n. gen. shows deep divergence from other known genera. Molecular evidence strongly supports P. giblindavisi n. gen., n. sp. + Pristionchus spp. as monophyletic with respect to all other diplogastrids examined. Congruent with a clade of P. giblindavisi n. gen., n. sp. + Pristionchus spp. is the shared presence of a bifurcate P7 genital papilla. Discovery and description of a close sister group to Pristionchus, a model biological system, enables character polarisation in macroevolutionary studies of Pristionchus nematodes.

In: Nematology