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In: Learning to Write Effectively: Current Trends in European Research
Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting
Observing writing: Insights from Keystroke Logging and Handwriting is a timely volume appearing twelve years after the Studies in Writing volume Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing (Sullivan & Lindgren, 2006). The 2006 volume provided the reader with a fundamental account of keystroke logging, a methodology in which a piece of software records every keystroke, cursor and mouse movement a writer undertakes during a writing session. This new volume highlights current theoretical and applied research questions in keystroke logging and handwriting research that observes writing. In this volume, contributors from a range of disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, modern languages, and education, present their research that considers the cognitive and socio-cultural complexities of writing texts in academic and professional settings.
Computer keystroke logging is an exciting development in writing research methodology that allows a document's evolution to be logged and then replayed as if the document were being written for the first time. Computer keystroke logged data allows analysis of the revisions and pauses made by authors during the writing of texts. Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications is the first book to successfully collect a group of leading computer keystroke logging researchers into a single volume and provide an invaluable introduction and overview of this dynamic area of research. This volume provides the reader unfamiliar with writing research an introduction to the field and it provides the reader unfamiliar with the technique a sound background in keystroke logging technology and an understanding of its potential in writing research.
In: Learning to Write Effectively: Current Trends in European Research


This subchapter provides an introduction to the possibilities and limitations of digital tools for recording of writing processes, a comprehensive framework in which the digital tools that are explained further in the subchapters are integrated and a critical perspective to the characteristics of the tools, their usage and related automatic analyses is provided. The study of writing using digital tools not only has a role to play in the shaping of a comprehensive theory of writing, but also a role to play in the development of new didactic approaches to the teaching of writing and the encouraging of language awareness. The research presentations in the subchapters are read by considering both the research implications and the didactic implications of the research tools for writing processes.

In: Writing and Digital Media

This chapter presents, discusses and illustrates a method for the analysis of revision of form and concepts in online writing. Keystroke logging was coupled with stimulated recall to assist the development of the LS-taxonomy for online writing revision. Revisions are fundamentally divided according to their position in the text and according to their effect on the developing text. Revision occurs either within the previously written text or at the point of inscription. Revisions at the point of inscription are characterised by being only preceded by written text; the revisions occur in the course of transcription. During the writing process, revisions interact actively with pauses and other revisions. The complex nature of discourse in development, the issues of multiple categorisation of revision and the linking of revisions and pauses together as revision episodes, and how these impact upon the use of the LS-taxonomy is overviewed. All LS-taxonomy categories are thoroughly exemplified by examples from a corpus of keystroke-logged data of first language Swedish and English as a foreign language (EFL) compositions.

In: Computer Key-Stroke Logging and Writing

Keystroke logging is an approach to writing research that can also be used in teaching and exploring existing theories. This chapter overviews how keystroke logging can be used, and has been used, in the writing, language and translation classroom, illustrates how keystroke logging can provide new insights that can be used to interrogate theory and considers how keystroke logging’s capabilities can be extended to provide a bright future for this technology.

In: Computer Key-Stroke Logging and Writing

This chapter introduces the reader to the complexities of revision analysis and problematises the issues surrounding the development of revision taxonomies, ‘online’ revision analysis and the categorisation of online revisions. For the reader unfamiliar with the writing process, the chapter begins by overviewing the writing process. This introduction to the writing process provides the reader unfamiliar with writing and revision processes with a ground for understanding of the complexity of revision and the overview of revision presented in this chapter. After reading this chapter, the reader will have the necessary understanding of the writing and revision processes to follow the arguments relating to the development of an online revision taxonomy and online revision categorisation presented by Lindgren and Sullivan (this volume, Chapter 9).

In: Computer Key-Stroke Logging and Writing
In: Writing and Cognition
In: Observing Writing