To explore the question of whether TgJon might function as background to NT texts I compare TgJon and the gospel according to Matthew. I restrict this research to agricultural imagery, because the Targum is famous for its explanation of metaphors and similes, and because much imagery in Matthew has an agricultural background. It appears that in some cases it is interesting and helpful to consult the Targumic version of the Hebrew Bible. Targumic explanation of imagery is close to that of Matthew’s, although one must be aware of the differences.
There are two versions of the Targum of Samuel with Latin translation that have been written or edited by Christian scholars. The first is present in two manuscripts of Alfonso de Zamora, viz. MSS 7542 (Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid; dated 1533) and M-1, M-2 and M-3 (Biblioteca General Histórica, Universidad de Salamanca; dated 1532–1534). The second is edited in the Antwerp Polyglot Bible (1569–1572). Both the manuscripts and the Polyglot Bible were clearly made for a Christian readership, which is demonstrated in this article. The question arises of whether the Aramaic text in these manuscripts and this edition is suitable for the planned new critical edition of Targum Samuel.