Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are recorded in the Sakhalinian amber (Russia) for the first time. Pseudorthocladius zherikhini sp. n. is described in an extant genus of Orthocladiinae also known from the Baltic amber. Antillocladus sp. (Orthocladiinae) is the first representative of this genus recorded from fossil resins.
Over 2,500 pieces of unselected Rovno amber (Late Eocene of Ukraine) are studied for their contents of syninclusia depending on amber piece weight class and taxonomic position of syninclusion components. Unlike previous publications (Perkovsky et al. , ), ceratopogonid components enter analysis separately (as genera or genus groups) rather than as entire taxon. This changes the resulting pattern drastically. Instead of two correlation pleiades, the air-plankton one (include biting midges), and the ‘Sciara zone’ dwellers, we have six pleiades now depending on developmental environments (terrestrial saprotrophs vs. aquatic) and adult behavior (low level fliers and tree trunk visitors vs. air plankton and others which show no preference to tree trunks). Causes of some differences are uncertain.
Four Middle Eocene orthoclad species, Heterotrissocladius naibuchi sp. n., Paraphaenocladius nadezhdae sp. n., Pseudosmittia kodrulae sp. n. and Smittia sukachevae sp. n.. are described and figured. Based on the combination of the diptera fauna composition and paleobotanical data, suggestions on the climate and habitats of the Sakhalin amber forest are given.