Two groups of relict species are defined in the aquatic fauna of the Jordan Valley. The first group consists of a number of endemic Crustaceans found in springs. The zoogeographical connections of these Crustaceans suggest that their origin must be related to the transgressive Pliocene Mediterranean. The second group, found in Lake Tiberias, belongs to the preglacial fresh-water fauna known only from a few other tectonic lakes like Lake Baikal, Tanganyika, Ochrid, etc.
The Harpacticoida of a level bottom profile from Elat—extending from the littoral to 700 m depth—are discussed. Only 40 species are listed from the 17 bottom samples, among them 19 belong to new species. The large number of new species prevented the inclusion of all the material in the present paper. The new new species are as follows: Camelia elanitica n. sp., Canuellina femur n. sp., Canuellina onchophora n. sp., Brianola exigua n. sp., Zosime erythraea n. sp., Zosime bathyalis n. sp., Diarthrodes hirami n. sp., Rhyncholagena josaphatis n. sp., Rhyncholagena littoralis n. sp., Rhyncholagena profundorum n. sp., Haloschizopera ruthorum n. sp., Ophirion communis n. g. n. sp., Cletodes yotabisn. sp., Cletodes spinulipes n. sp., Enhydrosoma vicinum n. sp., Enhydrosomella monardi n. sp., Mesocletodes farauni n. sp., Hypalocletodes salomonis n. g. n. sp., Eurycletodes denticulatus n. sp.
The family Canuellidae is revised and a new genus, Scottolana n. g., proposed for the species Camella inopinata, C. longipes, C. curticaudata, C. scotti and Sunaristes bulbosus. Camelia reichi is transferred to the genus Brianola.
Ecological aspects are not dealt with, although the variety of the fauna at all depths is emphasized. An impoverished, though specific panbathyal fauna is found on the deep bottoms; the two new genera are characteristic for these bottoms.
The new species Paranannopus philistinus n.sp. is described from the Israel Mediterranean coast. It is the first report of this genus from the Mediterranean, and the fourth known species of Paranannopus. A comparative revision of the genus is given.
Four species of the genus Nitocra Boeck are reported from the waters of the Jordan system. Nitocra incerta (Richard) b considered as a species independent from Nitocra hibernica (Brady) on the basis of biometrical considerations and on the ecological segregation of the two species in the Jordan valley. Nitocra balnearia n.sp. is described from the mineral spring of Hamei Zohar, on the shores of the Dead Sea, and is related to Nitocra spinipes Boeck. Nitocra lacustris Schmankewitsch is reported from the interstices of the gravelly supralittoral of lake Tiberias.
Some zoogeographical considerations are presented, based on the distribution of Nitocra in the Jordan Rift valley.
F. D. POR
Over a period of three years (1963–1965) 18 species (9 harpacticoids and 9 cyclopoids) of copepods from Lake Tiberias were collected in several littoral and offshore benthic stations and in two groups of springs. Schizopera taricheana n. sp. Nannopus palustris tiberiadis n. ssp. and Pseudobradya barroisi nov. comb, are described. Conclusions are reached as to seasonal occurrence, vertical distribution and quantitative relations of the species. Hypotheses are advanced concerning the origins, zoogeographical relations, recent historical changes and present composition of the benthic copepode fauna of the lake.
F. D. POR
The results of several years of benthic research in Lake Tiberias are summed up. A provisional census of the invertebrate zoobenthos reveals a relatively reduced number of species. The widespread anoxyc conditions, the oligohaline salinity, and the stormy regime of the lake are held responsible for this reduction.
Five faunal belts are recognized in the benthal of the Lake: 1) the Supralittoral; 2) the Littoral; 3) the Sublittoral; 4) the Epiprofundal and 5) the Profundal. Seasonal changes occur chiefly in the littoral during the spring, and in the profundal during the winter.
The faunal history of the Lake is analysed, and the following phases are proposed: 1) the late Pliocene marine-brackish Bira lagoon; 2) the early Pleistocene freshwater Melanopsis lake; 3) the regressive Naharayim lake; 4) the interglacial, brackish Lissan I lake; 5) the glacial transgressive freshwater Lissan II lake. For the present postglacial stage, some man-made changes in the biological equilibrium are discussed.