Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī (d. 606/1210) was a prominent theologian, interpreter of the Qurʾān, philosopher, and arguably the most important critic of Avicenna (d. 428/1037). He was born in 543/1149 in Rayy, where he studied theology, philosophy and law under different masters, including his father who was a preacher. Having completed his studies, he started a wandering life which took him to different cities and courts in Transoxania and Khwārazm, where he had a number of famous disputes with local scholars. After a brief return to Rayy he finally settled in Herat where he spent the rest of his life, a wealthy and respected scholar with many followers. His works are many, mainly in philosophy and theology, besides his famous commentary on the Qurʾān called Mafātīḥ al-ghayb. Rāzī received a basic medical training during a stopover in Sarakhs 580/1184. The present work is a compendium on preventive medicine and stands in a long tradition.
Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī
Edited by ʿAymin Shaḥāda and Hassan Ansari
Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn al-Makkī (d. 559/1163-64) was a specialist of theology and law and the preacher ( khaṭīb) of the Shāfi’ī congregation in Rayy of his time. Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn is, however, best known as the father of the famous theologian and critic of Avicenna (d. 428/1037), Fakhr al-Dīn Rāzī (d. 606/1210), often referred to as Ibn al-Khaṭīb, certainly in his younger years. Ḍiyāʾ al-Dīn studied Ashʿarī theology in Nishapur under Abu ʼl-Qāsim b. Salmān al-Anṣārī (d. 512/), himself a student of Imām al-Ḥaramayn al-Juwaynī (d. 478/). Besides, he also studied in Marwarūdh, hometown of the Shāfiʿī jurist al-Ḥusayn b. Masʿūd al-Farrāʾ al-Baghawī (d. 516/1122). The work of which the one remaining volume is published here is one of the largest works in early Ashʿarī theology. It gives a fine impression of the discussions around some of the main differences between the Muʿtazila and the Ashʿarīs, besides its importance as a source of his son’s ideas.