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Felipe Hernández

Abstract

This paper creates a link between various disciplinary areas – history, cultural theory and architecture – using the concept of translation as a vehicle. The first sections consist of a detailed analysis of the concept of translation within various discourses. Here, I engage with the work of Walter Benjamin, who elaborates extensively on literary translation, and Jacques Derrida who takes on the Benjaminian notion of translation but moves on to unveil further possibilities. The work of the postcolonial translation but moves on to unveil further possibilities. The work of the postcolonial theorists Homi Bhabha and Tejaswini Niranjana is also discussed. Bhabha and Niranjana disclose the political content of translation and approach it as a highly subversive term. Finally, I elaborate on the way Latin American literary and cultural theorists have interpreted the notion of translation in their attempts to study the development of the continent’s cultures. In the final section of this essay, the notion of translation is employed in order to examine the contradictions that exist behind the Museo Cultural Quimbaya designed by the Colombian architect Rogelio Salmona. It is argued that the lack of a critical process of architectural translation resulted in the building’s not responding to the conflictive historical experiences of the people it was designed for. This paper reveals various issues that escape the limitations of traditional self-centred architectural theory which have never been sufficiently theorised in the past or which may have not been theorised at all.

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Transculturation

Cities, Spaces and Architectures in Latin America

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Edited by Felipe Hernández, Mark Millington and Iain Borden

Transculturation: Cities, Spaces and Architectures in Latin America explores the critical potential inherent in the notion of “transculturation” in order to understand contemporary architectural practices and their cultural realities in Latin America. Despite its enormous theoretical potential and its importance within Latin American cultural theory, the term transculturation had never permeated into architectural debates. In fact, none of the main architectural theories produced in and about Latin America during the second half of the twentieth century engaged seriously with this notion as a way to analyze the complex social, cultural and political circumstances that affect the development of the continent’s cities, its urban spaces and its architectures. Therefore, this book demonstrates, for the first time, that the term transculturation is an invaluable tool in dismantling the essentialist, genealogical and hierarchical perspectives from which Latin American architectural practices have been viewed. Transculturation: Cities, Spaces and Architectures in Latin America introduces new readings and interpretations of the work of well-known architects, new analyses regarding the use of architectural materials and languages, new questions to do with minority architectures, gender and travel, and, from beginning to end, it engages with important political and theoretical debates that have rarely been broached within Latin American architectural circles.
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Felipe Hernández, Mark Millington and Iain Borden

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Felipe Hernández, Mark Millington and Iain Borden

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Series:

Felipe Hernández, Mark Millington and Iain Borden

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J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Claudia Molina-Zuluaga, Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos, Norma L. Manríquez-Morán, Felipe Rodríguez-Romero, Maricela Villagrán-Santa Cruz and Fausto R. Méndez-de la Cruz

Life cycles of living organisms are composed of distinct sub-cycles that represent alternative life-history paths with differential impact on fitness. We identified three reproductive life-history paths (referred here as loops) in the life cycle of one population of the viviparous lizard Sceloporus grammicus. We evaluated the relative importance of each one of these reproductive paths for the population fitness of these lizards during a 5-year period. The first path corresponded to early reproduction and included survival to maturity and early fecundity. The second path was late reproduction loop and included survival to larger adult sizes with the corresponding fecundity rate. The third was composed of those individuals skipping the small adult stage within a single year, reaching larger sizes early in life with their corresponding larger litters (fast growth loop). To examine the potential effects of environmental factors on the relative contribution of these alternative life-history paths to fitness, we estimated stage-specific survival and growth as functions of annual temperature and rainfall. Using these estimates of vital rates we constructed annual population projection matrices. Then, using demographic elasticities and loop analysis, we calculated the relative contribution of each of the three reproductive paths to the population growth rates. Our results showed that the early reproduction loop is the path with the greatest relative contribution to the population growth rate in most years. However, increases in environmental temperature resulted in higher population growth rates and in greater contribution of the fast growth path to the overall fitness of these lizards.