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In: The Russian Jewish Diaspora and European Culture, 1917-1937
In: Warsaw. The Jewish Metropolis
In: Making History Jewish

Originally a neutral collective term, stemming from the Yiddish, for Jews from the early modern Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The confrontation with Hasidism, the theological reorientation of the study of scripture, and a distinctive advancement of the Jewish tradition of education under the influence of the Haskalah contributed to the formation of a specific Lithuanian-Jewish rationalistic self-understanding. In the 19th century, as a result of the migration of Lithuanian Jews to Poland, the term “Litvaks” came to be stereotyped as designating the modernistic, Russian speaking defenders of the Empire.

in Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Cultures Online

Aus dem Jiddischen stammende, ursprünglich neutrale Sammelbezeichnung für Juden aus dem frühneuzeitlichem Großherzogtum Litauen. Die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Chassidismus, die theologische Neuausrichtung des Schriftstudiums und eine eigene Weiterentwicklung jüdischer Bildungstraditionen unter dem Einfluss der Haskala trugen zur Ausbildung eines spezifischen litauisch-jüdischen rationalistischen Selbstverständnisses bei. Im 19. Jahrhundert kam es infolge von Migration litauischer Juden nach Polen zur Stereotypisierung des Begriffs »Litwaken« als modernistische, russischsprachige Vertreter des Imperiums.

in Enzyklopädie jüdischer Geschichte und Kultur

Abstract

A letter by the army contractor Eliezer Dileon to the community board of Minsk relating his audience with Tsar Alexander I of Russia in January 1817 sheds light on the significance of the performative dimension of Jewish intercession. In the perception of the intercessor, due to the personal encounter between the sovereign ruler and himself, the Jews in Russia constitute part of the political and societal fabric of the Empire, it sees them as ‘a people.’ The letter is one of the very few documents describing and confirming the symbolic meaning of an encounter between a monarch and a Jewish intercessor. It reflects on the reciprocal nature of negotiations between the state and the Jewish minority, the limitations in concrete outcomes notwithstanding.

Open Access
In: Zutot