The structure of mathematics, as revealed by the exploration of axiomatic systems, bears striking similarities to the structure of nature, as revealed by the hierarchical theory of time. It is assumed that this isomorphism is not accidental but reflects the evolutionary development of the human capacity of handling numbers. This assumption permits a conjecture. Namely, if mathematics is found to possess certain systematic uncertainties, than nature must also possess corresponding qualities which may be identified. The paper proposes that the theme of the conference, "time and uncertainty," be understood in this broad context. I would like to demonstrate the existence of certain striking similarities between the structure and properties of mathematics on the one hand and, on the other hand, the structures and processes of nature at large, as revealed by the hierarchical theory of time. Then, using these correspondences, I propose a framework that promises to provide a unified perspective for the rich program we have ahead.