The purpose of the study was to report on the prevalence and types of self-harming practices that young adults engage in a sample taken from a community in South Africa. The study was descriptive in nature, with the aim being to describe the frequencies of self-harming behaviour of a South African young adult sample in a community setting. In order to collect the data, a structured self-report questionnaire was used, which consisted of three sections: biographical questions, a general question related to self-harm, and the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). The questionnaire was administered to 201 young adults between the ages of 18 and 27. In total sixty-two respondents (30.9%) indicated that they had never engaged in any type of self-harming behaviour, 30 respondents (14.9%) indicated that they had used one method to self-harm, and 109 respondents (54.2%) reported to have used more than one method to self-harm. Mental pain has been reported as the most prevalent category of behaviours for the sample, which included behaviours such as torture with self-defeating thoughts (n=47, 20.9%), emotionally abusive relationships (n=32, 15.9%), and distancing oneself from God (n=30, 14.9%). Most types of self-harming behaviour (n=16, 72.7%) were engaged in only once, but behaviours such as hitting (n=18, 9%) and promiscuous behaviour (n=15, 7.5%) were engaged in repeatedly by respondents. Worldwide self-harming practices are increasing, particularly in community settings. Although self-harm has received increased academic interest in developed countries, very little is known about the prevalence of self-harm in the South African context. In order to gain a proper understanding of self-harming practices in a developing country such as South Africa, further empirical research is recommended, particularly in relation to the mental health of young adults. On a national level, governments need to intervene and place increased focus on the mental health of its youth.
Worldwide, the study of spirituality is receiving increased attention, but very little is known about spirituality and its manifestation in African organizations. The aim of this research was to explore the experience of spirituality in a multicultural and diverse working environment, in order to enhance understanding of the functioning of spirituality in relation to diversity in the workplace. In particular, the study explores workplace spirituality from an individual and an organizational perspective within diverse organizations operating within a multicultural society. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 600 white collar workers from two organizations in different industries in South Africa. The research findings indicate that there is an inverse relationship between workplace spirituality and individual spirituality. Furthermore, the study confirmed that the experience of both personal and organizational spirituality is impacted by several diversity characteristics within a multicultural environment. In order to improve understanding of the experience of spirituality in multicultural societies and organizations, further empirical research is recommended. Globally, organizations need to realize the importance of embracing spirituality, in order to function effectively in a multicultural environment.
Ethical behavior in South Africa, and consequently in the workplace, is currently a highly topical issue. Hence it was decided to investigate whether demographic differences exist regarding work ethics, in order to guide organizational decision-making and to understand work behavior in a South African sample. The sample consisted of 301 respondents, and data was collected using the Multidimensional Work Ethics Profile (MWEP), which was developed to measure seven facets of work ethics. Inferential statistical analysis was performed to analyze the dataset. The results indicate that male respondents scored higher on delay of gratification in comparison to their female counterparts. Test results for tenure found that increased years of service influenced respondents’ scores positively in hard work and delay of gratification.