This study examines the relationships among intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations, locus of control and depression levels of 430 Turkish Muslim university students. The results show that some locus of control dimensions are related to participants’ religious orientations, but depression has no significant impact on intrinsic or extrinsic religiousness. Hierarchical Regression Analyses were conducted for predicting the intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations of different gender. Belief in chance (negatively) and belief in fate (positively) contribute to male and female participants’ intrinsic religious orientations. Meaninglessness of effortfulness was crucial only for women’s intrinsic religiosity. Higher belief in meaninglessness of effortfulness was related to lower intrinsic religiosity scores for women. Among the locus of control variables, only belief in fate (positively) contributed to extrinsic religious orientations in both men and women. Belief in an unjust world positively contributed only to male extrinsic religious orientations. Women had higher intrinsic religiosity scores.
In this exploratory qualitative study, the open-ended responses of 71 Turkish–Muslim university students (43 women, 28 men) regarding their religious socialization experiences were coded by NVivo 8. Results indicate that both parents play a major role in their offspring’s religious socialization. However, participants perceive their same-sex parents in particular as being more influential. Parents’ methods for transmitting religious values and practices include having religious talks with their children, answering their questions about Islam, sending them to mosques, reinforcing and/or punishing their behaviours. Peers, siblings, and cousins are other important religious socialization agents whom the participants generally perceive as partners in religious activities. Some religious peer groups, same-sex siblings and cousins play a significant role in the participants’ religious learning. In Turkish–Muslim families, the oldest siblings exert a major influence on the religious socialization of their younger brothers and sisters as do grandparents, aunts and uncles.