This study investigate factors affecting brand strategic decisions in Chinese companies in regard to two factors: environmental uncertainty and entrepreneurial orientation, with the model of environmental management strategies. Based on prior literature and empirical analysis, this study proposes a contingency framework, which indicated that under what conditions Chinese companies prefer to adopt what kind of brand strategies, such as own-brand manufacturing, acquired brand, licensed brand and original equipment manufacturing/original design manufacturing.
Taking community construction in B city as a basic social fact, and focusing on people’s residential patterns and actions related to the right of residence, this paper explores the formation and evolution of urban communities as well as their complicated interactions with the state, market and society. The paper proposes that since residency is the most essential foundation for survival and livelihood, the maintenance of the legal right of occupancy and to build upon property means the protection of the right of survival as a kind of human right, as well as the pursuit of social equality and justice making these issues a top political priority for citizens.
Two habitats of Ammopiptanthus mongolicus growing in the desert regions of Northwest China, one with watering (IR) and one without watering (DR), were investigated simultaneously for gas exchange patterns and the expression of photosynthetic genes. Stomatal conductance (gs) and intracellular CO2 concentration (ci) were markedly lower in A. mongolicus in the natural desert habitat (DR) compared to IR, paralleling a similar depression observed in the net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Pn). The steady-state levels of photosystem II (PS II) reaction center protein D1, light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), photosystem I (PS I) reaction center protein PsaA/B, and light-harvesting complex I (LHC I) were reduced in DR compared to IR. Our results indicate that both stomatal and nonstomatal factors contribute to the low carbon assimilation rate in DR. Moreover, the contents of PsaA/B and LHC I are more reduced than those of D1 and LHC II, indicating that PS I is more susceptible to photoinhibition under natural desert environment stresses. The cab transcripts for nuclear-encoded LHC II were decreased in DR compared with those in IR, while the psbA transcripts for chloroplast-encoded D1 protein remain largely unchanged between DR and IR. These results indicate that the nuclear-encoded photosynthetic gene is regulated, at least at the transcriptional level, and that the chloroplast-encoded gene is regulated mainly posttranscriptionally.