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This paper shows how contrastive analysis and interlanguage analysis can be combined into a model which aims to detect phenomena of transfer, explain them and evaluate them in terms of pedagogical relevance. The model, referred to as the Detection-Explanation-Evaluation (DEE) transfer model, relies on Granger’s (1996) Integrated Contrastive Model and Jarvis’s (2000) unified framework for transfer research, and uses corpus data as a basis for a range of comparisons between L1 (mother tongue), L2 (target language) and IL (interlanguage). As an illustration, the use of even if by French-speaking learners is investigated, and the possible influence of L1 is examined in the light of the different comparisons involved in the model. Finally, some limitations of the DEE transfer model are discussed, all of which point to possible developments that could be implemented in the future.

In: Linking up contrastive and learner corpus research


This paper explores the use of the relative pronoun (who) with nonhuman animals. The paper looks at what dictionaries, an encyclopedia, grammars, publication manuals, newspapers, and news agencies say and do relative to this issue. In addition to investigating the views and practices of these authoritative publications, the study also searched a 100-million-word collection (corpus) of spoken and written English. The study found that while some reference works reject or ignore the use of (who) with nonhuman animals, other works discuss the possibility, and (who) does occur in the corpus with nonhuman animals. Explanations for such usage include psychological closeness with particular nonhuman animals and/or features shared with humans. The paper suggests that the use of (who) with nonhuman animals might play a role in promoting human attitudes and behaviors beneficial to fellow animals. However, it cautions that the correlation between language use, on the one hand, and attitudes and behaviors, on the other hand, is not a perfect one.

In: Society & Animals
The papers brought together in this volume explore, through corpus data, the link between contrastive and interlanguage analysis. Learner corpora are approached from a contrastive perspective, by comparing them with native corpora or corpus data produced by learners from other mother tongue backgrounds, or by combining them with contrastive data from multilingual (translation or comparable) corpora. The integration of these two frameworks, contrastive and learner corpus research, makes it possible to highlight crucial aspects of learner production, such as features of non-nativeness (errors, over- and underuse, unidiomatic expressions), including universal features of interlanguage, or more general issues like the question of transfer. The ten papers of this volume cover topics ranging from methodology to syntax (e.g. adverb placement, postverbal subjects), through lexis (collocations) and discourse (e.g. information packaging, thematic choice). The languages examined include English, Chinese, Dutch, French and Spanish. The book will be of interest to a wide array of readers, especially researchers in second language acquisition and contrastive linguistics, but also professionals working in foreign language teaching, such as language teachers, materials writers and language testers.