This chapter revisits an important and long-standing debate on whether “Renaissance” or “Enlightenment” is a more appropriate or accurate term to describe the May Fourth Movement. The author of this chapter proposes a renewed interest in using “Renaissance” as a conceptual category to evaluate the May Fourth new culture movement since it has the merits of placing this Chinese cultural movement in a transnational context. Through an appropriation of Franco Moretti’s concept of “distant reading,” the author highlights the parallel relations between May Fourth China and other cultures at their respective historical junctures in order to emphasize the multiple and transnational practices of Renaissance. This chapter thus demonstrates how the framework of world literary studies can help us reshape and refresh our understanding of the May Fourth new culture movement within a global and cross-cultural context.
Based on reviewing the available globalization perspectives in Chinese and international academic research communities and the field of Chinese education studies, this article argues that conducting research on Chinese education in the perspective of globalization means analyzing how modern Chinese educators established modern China’s education through integrating Chinese and Western cultures, and accordingly discovering the “modern tradition of Chinese education” shaped by modern Chinese educators. This exploration will not only enrich the existing historical studies of China’s education and perceptions of its relation with the globalization process, but provide beneficial historical lessons for China’s education researchers to conduct an independent international dialogue in the present globalization process, and for other counties to establish harmonious communications with China in the field of education and culture based on mutual understanding.
Genetic diversities of 106 Avena accessions, including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species, derived from different countries were characterized based on seed storage proteins polymorphism using SDS-PAGE. A total of 24 protein bands and 72 protein patterns were detected in all 106 accessions. The genetic similarity value varied from 0.50 to 1.00. The seed storage protein patterns were largely independent of environmental fluctuation. Accessions of the same species or with identical genome constitutions had the same or similar protein patterns. Relatively lower within-species variations were observed compared with among-species variations. The AACCDD genome hexaploid species and the AA genome diploid species were more divergent than other species, with percentages of polymorphic bands of 85.7% and 61.1% respectively. In the AA genome diploid species, the AsAs genome diploids displayed higher variations than the modified AA genome diploid species. Clustering results showed a close relationship between the hexaploid species and the AACC genome tetraploid species. The AABB genome tetraploid species were similar to the AsAs genome diploid species, with the exception of the species A. agadiriana with AABB genome constitution, which showed a close relationship with the AcAc genome diploid species A. canariensis and the polyploid species carrying the A and C genomes.