In: The Arab Spring
In: An Introduction to International Refugee Law
New Patterns for Democracy and International Law
Editors: Carlo Panara and Gary Wilson
The Arab Spring: New Patterns for Democracy and International Law explores a number of critical issues brought to the forefront of the international community as a result of the uprisings which began in the Middle East and North Africa in early 2011. Particularly prominent among these are issues concerning the right to democracy within international law, self-determination, recognition of newly installed governments, the use of force for humanitarian purposes, protection of human rights, and the prosecution of international crimes. This important volume brings together a multitude of fresh voices, and as events in the Arab world continue to unfold, is certain to make a valuable contribution to a meaningful understanding of the “Arab Spring” from a constitutional and international law perspective.
In: The Arab Spring
In: The Arab Spring

A new Alaninema species associated with leaf-veined slugs (Athoracophoridae) in New Zealand is described and illustrated. Alaninema ngata n. sp. is characterised by a very long, cylindrical body, rounded head bearing two circles of cephalic papillae and amphids, shallow stoma with three bifid teeth, muscular, cylindroid pharynx lacking valves, enlarged, rounded cardia, nerve ring crossing the anterior intestine, excretory pore situated just posterior to nerve ring, monodelphic females with post-median vulva, thick-shelled eggs covered with prominent tubercles, monorchic males with short testis reflection, reduced number of male genital papillae, strong equal spicules and gubernaculum and tail tip bearing about 20 digitate processes. It is distinguished from A. venmansi and A. njoroensis by having a larger body size (mean 8.3 mm and 13.8 mm in males and females, respectively vs 8.2 mm females in A. venmansi and 4.8 mm and 5.5 mm in A. njoroensis males and females, respectively) and more anterior vulval position (V = 51.6 vs 70 and 66.4 in A. venmansi and A. njoroensis, respectively). Analyses of a partial 18S rDNA sequence indicate that A. ngata n. sp. is affiliated to the Panagrolaimorpha. The systematic position, host range and distribution of A. ngata n. sp. are discussed.

In: Nematology